Abstract: Background: Acne in women is often associated with anxiety and depression, and may persist from adolescence as well as manifest for the first time in adulthood. Genetic and hormonal factors contribute to its etiopathogenesis, and maintenance treatment is required, usually for years, due to its clinical evolution. Objective: To develop a guide for the clinical practice of adult female acne. Methods: A team of five experts with extensive experience in acne conducted a literature review of the main scientific evidence and met to discuss the best practices and personal experiences to develop a guide containing recommendations for the clinical practice of adult female acne. Results: The group of specialists reached consensus on the main guidelines for clinical practice, providing detailed recommendations on clinical picture, etiopathogenesis, laboratory investigation and treatment of adult female acne. Conclusion: Different from teenage acne, adult female acne presents some characteristics and multiple etiopathogenic factors that make its management more complex. This guide provides recommendations for best clinical practices and therapeutic decisions. However, the authors consider that additional studies are needed in order to provide more evidence for adult female acne to be better understood.
Abstract: Background: Brazil does not have a rosacea-specific quality of life questionnaire. Objectives: translation into Brazilian Portuguese, development of cultural adaptation, and validation of the RosaQoL disease-specific questionnaire for rosacea of any subtype. Methods: the recommended procedures for translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of an instrument were followed, and three interviews were conducted: baseline; seven to fourteen days after baseline; and at four to six months. The questionnaire was analyzed (with 95% confidence interval) for reliability by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha); testretest reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient); responsiveness and validity. Results: terms of the original questionnaire were replaced to guarantee cultural and semantic equivalence. Validity was demonstrated by expressive correlations between the RosaQoL domains and by significance in the Jonckheere-Terpstra test (p≤0.05) between the scores of the RosaQoL domains and the participants' self-perception in relation to the disease. Reliability was acceptable; alpha coefficient ranged from 0.923 to 0.916 in the first and second applications of the RosaQoL, respectively, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.671 to 0.863 in the seven- to fourteen-day period. Responsiveness, measured by grouping participants into three categories based on self-perception of rosacea (better, worse or unchanged), was found for the “better” response group (p≤0.05). Study limitations: small sample; limited variety of screening sources. Conclusions: RosaQoL-BR (Brazil) was demonstrated as a reliable, valid and responsive questionnaire, with limitations, for individuals with any subtype of rosacea.
Abstract: Acne is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease with high prevalence among adolescents. By compromising face, thorax and back, with the risk of permanent scars, it has a negative impact on the quality of life. Effective, safe and early treatment is the key to remission, while decreasing the risk of physical and/or emotional sequelae. The Iberian-Latin American Group of Acne Studies joined professionals with expertise and developed a practical therapeutic algorithm, adapted to the reality of Latin American countries, Spain and Portugal. This article intends to disseminate it with an updated review on a rational, safe and effective acne treatment.
Abstract The tretinoin peel, also known as retinoic acid peel, is a superficial peeling often performed in dermatological clinics in Brazil. The first study on this was published in 2001, by Cuce et al., as a treatment option for melasma. Since then, other studies have reported its applicability with reasonable methodology, although without a consistent scientific background and consensus. Topical tretinoin is used for the treatment of various dermatoses such as acne, melasma, scars, skin aging and non-melanoma skin cancer. The identification of retinoids cellular receptors was reported in 1987, but a direct cause-effect relation has not been established. This article reviews studies evaluating the use of topical tretinoin as agent for superficial chemical peel. Most of them have shown benefits in the treatment of melasma and skin aging. A better quality methodology in the study design, considering indication and intervention is indispensable regarding concentration, vehicle and treatment regimen (interval and number of applications). Additionally, more controlled and randomized studies comparing the treatment with tretinoin cream versus its use as a peeling agent, mainly for melasma and photoaging, are necessary.
AbstractType I collagen is the main dermal component, and its evaluation is relevant to quantitative studies in dermatopathology. However, visual gradation (0 to 4+) has low precision and high subjectivity levels. This study aimed to develop and validate a digital morphometric analysis technique to estimate type I collagen levels in the papillary dermis. Four evaluators visually quantified (0 to 4+) the density of type I collagen in 63 images of forearm skin biopsies marked by immunohistochemistry and two evaluators analyzed the same images using digital morphometric techniques (RGB split colors (I) and color deconvolution (II)). Automated type I collagen density estimation in the papillary dermis (two techniques) were correlated with visual evaluations (Spearman's rho coefficients of 0.48 and 0.62 (p<0.01)). With regard to the inter-observer repeatability, the four evaluators who used visual classification had an intraclass correlation coefficient (for absolute agreement) of 0.53, while the other two evaluators who used digital analysis (algorithm II) had an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.97.
Tretinoin is used in the management of acne and it is part of a gold standard treatment for photoaging. It has also been reported as an agent for superficial chemical peeling in highly concentrated formulations with few considerations about skin penetration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of drug concentration and vehicles currently used on skin penetration of tretinoin. In vitro permeation tests were carried out using Franz diffusion cells fitted with porcine ear skin and 10% aqueous methanol in the receptor compartment. Formulations studied, cream or hydroalcoholic dispersion, containing 0.25%, 1% and 5% of tretinoin were placed in the donor compartment for six hours. Tretinoin concentration in skin layers was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The largest amount of tretinoin from both vehicles was detected in stratum corneum with significant differences among the three concentrations. The hydroalcoholic dispersion was the best vehicle. Significant amounts of tretinoin were found even in deep layers of epidermis. The formulation with 0.25% tretinoin showed better results when considered the amount of tretinoin on skin in terms of percentage. Finally, skin penetration of tretinoin was influenced by vehicle and concentration of this drug used in formulation.
A tretinoína é usada no tratamento de acne e é considerada como padrão de ouro para o tratamento do fotoenvelhecimento. Em altas concentrações, é relatada como um agente para peeling químico superficial, com poucas considerações sobre a penetração na pele. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência da concentração do fármaco e os veículos comumente usados na penetração cutânea da tretinoína. Testes in vitro de penetração foram realizados com células de difusão de Franz equipados com pele da orelha de porco e 10% de solução aquosa de metanol no compartimento receptor. As formulações estudadas, creme ou dispersão hidroalcoólica, contendo 0,25%, 1% e 5% de tretinoína foram colocadas no compartimento doador, durante seis horas. A concentração da tretinoína foi medida por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. A maior quantidade de tretinoína foi detectada no estrato córneo com diferenças significativas entre as três concentrações. A dispersão hidroalcoólica foi o melhor veículo. Quantidades significativas de tretinoína foram encontradas nas camadas profundas da epiderme. A formulação com 0,25% de tretinoína mostrou melhores resultados em termos de porcentagem penetrada na pele. Por fim, a penetração de tretinoína na pele foi influenciada pelo veículo e pela concentração desta utilizada na formulação.
BACKGROUND: The gynoidlypodystrophy, known as cellulitis or cellulite, refers to a condition that gives the skin an undulating and uneven appearance, affecting 80-90% of women after puberty. OBJECTIVES: to investigate the efficacy and safety of manual lymphatic drainage for cellulite management. METHODS: this was an open, prospective, intervention study including 20 women aged from 20 to 40 years. Fourteen sessions of manual lymphatic drainage were performed once a week on lower limbs and buttocks. RESULTS: Fifteen women completed the study. A significant improvement on quality of life was observed (p=0.018). A significant reduction (p=0.023), estimated at 0.3±0.8 cm, in hip circumference was found, but no difference was found in thighs circumference (p>0.05). A significant reduction elastic recuperation of skin on buttocks, which means skin elasticity worsening, was observed. All measures obtained by ultrasound images showed no changes (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: manual lymphatic drainage was safe but not effective as an isolated approach for cellulite management. Further randomized, controlled or comparative studies about manual lymphatic drainage for cellulite control, as unique or combined therapeutic modality, are necessary.
BACKGROUND:Acne is a common disease in adolescents, but there are no epidemiological data for acne in Brazil.OBJECTIVES:To estimate the prevalence and degree of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo and study socio-demographic factors, family history and lifestyle, associated with the disease.METHODS:Cross-sectional study with 452 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 (mean=13.3 years), students from elementary and high school, examined by 3 independent evaluators.RESULTS:62.4% were female, 85.8% white and 6.4% were aged 14. The prevalence was 96.0% and increased with age - all students over 14 had acne. The most prevalent form of acne was comedonal (61.1%), followed by mild (30.6%) and moderate (7.6%) papular-pustular, which affected mostly the face (97.5%). About half of the adolescents reported family history for acne in mother or father, and 20.6% reported previous treatment for acne. There was a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age (p<0.001). DISCUSSION: The prevalence of acne in adolescents varies widely due to the clinical features and diagnostic methods used. Adolescents whose brothers/sisters had acne (OR=1.7-p=0.027) and those over 13 (OR=8.3-p<0.001), were more likely to have non-comedonal acne.CONCLUSION:This study showed high prevalence of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo, predominantly the comedonal form on the face, with a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age.
BACKGROUND: many studies about the psychosocial impact of acne have been reported in international medical literature describing quality of life as a relevant clinical outcome. It is well known that the patient's perception about the disease may be different from the physician's evaluation. Therefore, it is important to use validated instruments that turn the patient's subjective opinion into objective information. OBJECTIVES: to translate into Brazilian-Portuguese language and to culturally adapt a quality of life questionnaire, the Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (Acne-QoL), as well as to evaluate its reliability and validity. METHODS: measurement properties were assessed: 1) validity: comparison between severity and Acne-QoL domain scores, correlations between acne duration and Acne-QoL domain scores, and correlation between Acne-QoL domain scores and SF-36 components; 2) internal consistency: Cronbach's α coefficient; 3) test-retest reproducibility: intraclass correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: Eighty subjects with a mean age of 20.5 ± 4.8 years presenting mild (33.8%), moderate (36.2%) and severe (30%) facial acne were enrolled. Acne-QoL domain scores were similar among the different acne severity groups except for role-social domain. Subjects with shorter acne duration presented significant higher scores. Acne-QoL domains showed significant correlations, both between themselves and with SF-36 role-social and mental health components. Internal consistency (0.925-0.952) and test-retest reproducibility were considered acceptable (0.768-0.836). CONCLUSIONS: the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Acne-QoL is a reliable and valid satisfactory outcome measure to be used in facial acne studies.
A case is reported of a patient presenting lymph node tuberculosis and cutaneous lesions resembling papulonecrotic tuberculid, but histologically compatible with perforating granuloma annulare and which responded satisfactorily to antituberculous therapy. This is probably one of the first reports of the association of perforating granuloma annulare and tuberculosis, and it is important therefore to highlight the relevance of this disorder in the differential diagnosis of papulonecrotic tuberculid and to raise the hypothesis that this entity should also be considered to be a variant of tuberculid.
Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente com tuberculose ganglionar e lesões cutâneas clinicamente sugestivas de tubercúlide pápulo-necrótica, porém com histopatologia compatível com granuloma anular perfurante, e que apresentaram melhora após tratamento para a tuberculose. Trata-se, possivelmente, de um dos primeiros relatos da associação de granuloma anular perfurante com tuberculose, salientando a importância desta entidade no diagnóstico diferencial da tubercúlide pápulo-necrótica e levantando a possibilidade da mesma ser considerada, também, uma variante de tubercúlide.
Actinic keratosis is a common cause of dermatological consultations and it presents a strong association with squamous cell carcinoma. Many substances are used for treatment and prevention, such as retinoids. Nevertheless, many studies on retinoids emphasize their application in treating and preventing non melanoma skin cancers. In this article, we reviewed studies about systemic and topical retinoids used with immunocompetent patients and organ transplant recipients with actinic keratosis, as primary or secondary outcomes. The majority of these papers pointed to a reduction in actinic keratosis count after treatment with retinoids. However, studies need to be better-defined in order to address the lack of a standardized dose, the absence of control groups, the low number of patients and short follow-up periods. Blind, randomized and controlled clinical trials with adequate sample sizes, specifically focused on actinic keratosis, are needed to clarify the real benefit of topical and/or oral retinoids. Comparison of efficacy and safety between oral and topical retinoids in the prevention and treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers and actinic keratosis is an essential pre requisite to establish new strategies to control these conditions.
A queratose actínica é uma causa comum de consultas dermatológicas e apresenta forte associação com o carcinoma espinocelular. Muitas substâncias são utilizadas para seu tratamento e prevenção, assim como os retinoides. Entretanto, muitos estudos sobre retinoides salientam seu uso no tratamento e prevenção de cânceres de pele não melanoma. Neste artigo, nós revisamos estudos que avaliam o uso dos retinoides sistêmicos e tópicos para pacientes imunocompetentes e imunossuprimidos com queratoses actínicas, como desfechos primários e secundários. A maioria destes estudos mostra redução na contagem das queratoses actínicas após o tratamento com retinóides. Além disso, ajustes no delineamento dos estudos deveriam ser feitos quanto à falta de padronização da dose, ausência de grupos controle, número pequeno de pacientes e tempo curto de seguimento. Ensaios clínicos cegos, randomizados e controlados com tamanho amostral adequado tendo como alvo específico as queratoses actínicas são necessários para esclarecer o real benefício dos retinoides tópicos e/ou orais. A comparação da eficácia e segurança entre os retinoides orais e tópicos na prevenção e tratamento dos cânceres de pele não melanoma e queratoses actínicas é um pré-requisito essencial para o estabelecimento de novas estratégias para o controle destas condições.
Cosmetic Dermatology is a growing subspecialty. High-quality basic science studies have been published; however, few double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trials, which are the major instrument for evidence-based medicine, have been conducted in this area. Clinical research is essential for the discovery of new knowledge, improvement of scientific basis, resolution of challenges, and good clinical practice. Some basic principles for a successful researcher include interest, availability, persistence, and honesty. It is essential to learn how to write a protocol research and to know the international and national regulatory rules. A complete clinical trial protocol should include question, background, objectives, methodology (design, variable description, sample size, randomization, inclusion and exclusion criteria, intervention, efficacy and safety measures, and statistical analysis), consent form, clinical research form, and references. Institutional ethical review board approval and financial support disclosure are necessary. Publication of positive or negative results should be an authors' commitment.
Cosmiatria é uma sub-especialidade em grande crescimento. Estudos em ciência básica de alta qualidade têm sido publicados; ao contrário, existem poucos estudos clínicos duplo-cegos, randomizados e controlados, que constituem o maior instrumento para medicina baseada em evidência nessa área. A pesquisa clínica é essencial para a descoberta de novos conhecimentos, melhora das bases científicas, solução de desafios e boa prática clínica. Para ser um pesquisador bem sucedido, os princípios básicos são interesse, disponibilidade, persistência e honestidade. É essencial aprender como escrever um protocolo de pesquisa e conhecer as regras regulatórias nacionais e internacionais. Um protocolo de pesquisa clínica completo deve incluir questão, fundamentos, objetivos, metodologia (desenho, descrição das variáveis, tamanho da amostra, randomização, critérios de inclusão e exclusão, intervenção, parâmetros de eficácia e segurança e análise estatística), termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido, ficha clínica e referências. A aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa e a declaração do financiamento são imprescindíveis. A publicação de resultados positivos ou negativos deve ser um comprometimento dos autores.
Among the current treatments available for acne vulgaris, many widely practiced options lack support from studies at the best level of scientific evidence. The aim of this narrative review was to present the very latest information on topical and systemic treatments for acne vulgaris. Information from systematic reviews and well-designed clinical trials, obtained through a systematic search of the major medical databases, is emphasized. There are important issues regarding the clinical management of acne that still lack consistent grounding in scientific evidence. Among these are the optimum dose and duration of treatment with oral antibiotics that can be given without inducing bacterial resistance, and the safety of oral isotretinoin.
Na terapêutica atual da acne vulgar, muitas opções amplamente praticadas carecem de respaldo em estudos de melhor nível de evidência científica. O objetivo desta revisão narrativa é apresentar o que há de mais recente no tratamento tópico e sistêmico da acne vulgar. São enfatizadas as informações de revisões sistemáticas e de ensaios clínicos com bom desenho metodológico, obtidas a partir de busca sistematizada nas principais bases de dados em medicina. Há importantes questões referentes à conduta clínica diante da acne que ainda requerem embasamento em evidências científicas consistentes, entre elas a dose e a duração ideais do tratamento com antibióticos orais, sem que ocorra indução de resistência bacteriana, e a segurança da isotretinoína oral.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (POS) is one of the most common endocrine abnormalities affecting women of reproductive age. It is a cause of significant social embarrassment and emotional distress. The pathogenesis of the disease is not yet fully understood, but it is thought to be a complex multigenic disorder, including abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, steroidogenesis, and insulin resistance. The main diagnostic findings of the syndrome are: hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology seen on ultrasound. Hyperandrogenism is generally manifested as hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, androgenic alopecia and, in severe cases, signs of virilization. Treatment may improve the clinical manifestations of excess androgen production, normalize menses and ameliorate metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular complications. This article reviews the diagnosis, clinical manifestations, metabolic complications, and treatment of the syndrome. Early diagnosis and the consequent early treatment may prevent metabolic complications and emotional distress that negatively impact the patients' quality of life.
A síndrome do ovário policístico (SOP) é uma das endocrinopatias mais freqüentes nas mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Caracteriza-se por morbidade elevada devido aos aspectos estéticos e por repercussões metabólicas importantes. Embora a sua patogênese permaneça incompletamente conhecida, acredita-se numa desordem multigênica complexa, incluindo anormalidades no eixo hipotálamohipofisário, esteroidogênese e resistência insulínica. Os achados principais para o diagnóstico são: hiperandrogenismo, anovulação crônica e ovários policísticos à ultrassonografia. As manifestações dermatológicas do hiperandrogenismo incluem: hirsutismo, acne, seborréia, alopecia e, em casos mais graves, sinais de virilização. Existe considerável heterogeneidade nos achados clínicos e também pode haver variação na mesma paciente com o passar do tempo. O tratamento visa reduzir as manifestações do hiperandrogenismo, restaurar os ciclos ovulatórios regulares e corrigir a síndrome metabólica. Este artigo apresenta revisão da fisiopatologia, diagnóstico e tratamento da síndrome do ovário policístico. Enfatiza-se a importância do diagnóstico e tratamento precoces no intuito de prevenir as complicações metabólicas e a repercussão emocional que afeta a qualidade de vida das pacientes.