Abstract Introduction: Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic disease linked to bone marrow failure; a possible treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Changes in the nutritional status of Fanconi anemia patients are not very well known. This study aimed to characterize body composition of adult, children and adolescent patients with Fanconi anemia who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or not. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 63 patients (29 adults and 34 children and adolescents). Body composition was assessed based on diverse methods, including triceps skin fold, arm circumference, arm muscle area and bioelectrical impedance analysis, as there is no established consensus for this population. Body mass index was also considered as reference according to age. Results: Almost half (48.3%) of the transplanted adult patients were underweight considering body mass index whereas eutrophic status was observed in 66.7% of the children and adolescents submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and in 80% of those who were not. At least 50% of all groups displayed muscle mass depletion. Half of the transplanted children and adolescents presented short/very short stature for age. Conclusion: All patients presented low muscle stores, underweight was common in adults, and short stature was common in children and adolescents. More studies are needed to detect whether muscle mass loss measured at the early stages of treatment results in higher risk of mortality, considering the importance of muscle mass as an essential body component to prevent mortality related to infectious and non-infectious diseases and the malnutrition inherent to Fanconi anemia.
Abstract Introduction: Although it is an essential component of the treatment of acute lymphoid leukemia in children, asparaginase causes adverse reactions that sometimes make it impossible to use it fully. Hypersensitivity reactions are the most frequent and may lead to early discontinuation of treatment. The present study aimed to investigate suspicions of adverse reactions during the infusion of asparaginase in a pediatric cohort. Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out at a university pediatric institute in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Information regarding clinical features and characteristics of adverse reactions was collected from hospital medical records. Suspicions of adverse reactions were classified regarding causality and severity. Results: Seventy-three suspicions of adverse reactions were recorded during asparaginase infusion in 72 children in the study period. Allergic hypersensitivity reactions were suspected in 60.5% of the cases. Of these, 25% of the reactions occurred during induction and 61.1% in concomitant use with vincristine, findings that diverge from other studies. High-risk classification and younger age were considered risk factors for these reactions. A total of 72.4% of the reactions were classified as grade 1 or 2, which suggest that not all are related to antibody formation; this highlights the importance of differential diagnosis with other reactions, such as non-allergic hypersensitivity and hyperammonemia. Conclusion: The implementation of the differential diagnosis of reactions related to infusion of asparaginase with ammonia dosage and classification of the grade of reactions is crucial to facilitate the identification and proper management of each type of reaction.
Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of pre-sarcopenia and bone mineral density after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods: The study group consisted of over 18-year-old patients who had been submitted to allogeneic transplantation at least one year previously. Patients and healthy controls were matched by sex, ethnic background, age, and body mass index. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A 24-h food recall and food frequency survey were performed. The biochemical evaluation included calcium, parathormone and vitamin D. Eighty-seven patients (52 men; age: 37.2 ± 12.7 years; body mass index: 25 ± 4.5 kg/m2) were compared to 68 controls [31 men; age 35.4 ± 15.5 years (p = 0.467); body mass index 25.05 ± 3.7 kg/m2 (p = 0.927)]. Results: There was no significant difference in the dietary intake between patients and controls. The mean levels of vitamin D were 23.5 ± 10.3 ng/mL; 29 patients (41.0%) had insufficient and 26 (37.14%) deficient levels. A higher prevalence of reduced bone mineral density was observed in 24 patients (25%) compared to 12 controls (19.1% - p < 0.001). Pre-sarcopenia was diagnosed in 14 (14.4%) patients and none of the controls (p = 0.05). There was a higher prevalence of pre-sarcopenia (66%) in patients with grades III and IV compared to those with grades 0-II graft-versus-host disease (10.9%) (p = 0.004). Conclusion: patients submitted to transplantation had a higher prevalence of pre-sarcopenia and greater changes in bone mineral density compared to controls; the severity of graft-versus-host disease had an impact on the prevalence of pre-sarcopenia.
Abstract Background: The Kidd blood group system has three antigens, Jka, Jkb and Jk3, found on red blood cells and on endothelial cells of the inner lining of blood vessels in the renal medulla. These are known as urea transporter B (UT-B). Researchers have found that individuals carrying the Jk(a − b−) or Jk-null (UT-B null) phenotypes have a lower urine-concentrating capability and risk of severe renal impairment. This study evaluated the distribution of the Kidd phenotypes in patients with chronic kidney disease and a possible association of Kidd antigens with the development of renal disease. Methods: Jka and Jkb antigens were phenotyped using the gel column agglutination test (ID-cards Bio-RAD) in 197 patients with chronic kidney disease and 444 blood donors, as the control group. The phenotype and antigen frequencies between patients and controls were evaluated using the Chi-square method with Yates correction and logistic regression after adjustments for gender and age. Results: No differences were observed between the Kidd phenotypes frequency distribution between patients with chronic kidney disease and blood donors [Jk(a − b+) = 22.3% and 27.2%; Jk(a + b−) = 30.5% and 24.3%; Jk(a + b+) = 47.25% and 48.4%, respectively]. Conclusion: The distribution of Kidd phenotypes found in the studied population is expected for Caucasians; Jka and Jkb antigens and phenotypes were not found to be related to susceptibility for chronic kidney disease.
Abstract The term 'economy class syndrome' refers to the occurrence of thrombotic events during long-haul flights that mainly occur in passengers in the economy class of the aircraft. This syndrome results from several factors related to the aircraft cabin (immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia and low humidity) and the passenger (body mass index, thrombophilia, oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, cancer), acting together to predispose to excessive blood coagulation, which can result in venous thromboembolism. Several risk factors, both genetic and acquired, are associated with venous thromboembolism. The most important genetic risk factors are natural anticoagulant deficiencies (antithrombin, protein C and protein S), factor V Leiden, prothrombin and fibrinogen gene mutations and non-O blood group individuals. Acquired risk factors include age, pregnancy, surgery, obesity, cancer, hormonal contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, antiphospholipid syndrome, infections, immobilization and smoking. People who have these risk factors are predisposed to hypercoagulability and are more susceptible to suffer venous thromboembolism during air travel. For these individuals, a suitable outfit for the trip, frequent walks, calf muscle exercises, elastic compression stockings and hydration are important preventive measures. Hence, it is essential to inform about economic class syndrome in an attempt to encourage Brazilian health and transport authorities to adopt measures, in partnership with the pharmaceutical industry, to prevent venous thromboembolism.