The stability of penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3), a cell septum synthesizing protein, was analyzed at different incubation temperatures in three Escherichia coli K12 strains carrying a PBP3-overproducing plasmid. The stability of PBP3 was significantly reduced in stationary phase cells shifted to 42°C for 4 h, compared to samples incubated at 28 or 37°C. The half-life of PBP3 in the C600 strain was 60 min at 42°C, while samples incubated at 28 or 37°C had PBP3 half-lives greater than 4 h. Analysis of the PBP3 content in mutants deficient in rpoS (coding for the stationary phase sigma factor, sigmaS) and rpoH (coding for the heat shock sigma factor, sigma32) genes after shift to 42°C showed that stability of the protein was controlled by sigmaS but not by sigma32. These results suggest that control of the PBP3 levels in E. coli K12 is through a post-transcriptional mechanism regulated by the stationary phase regulon. We demonstrated that stability of PBP3 in E. coli K12 involves degradation of the protein. Moreover, we observed that incubation of cells at 42°C significantly reduces the stability of PBP3 in early stationary phase cells in a process controlled by sigmaS.
A strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria showing resistance to 1.2 mM cupric sulfate was analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and ESI (electron spectrophotometry imaging). Accumulation of copper was detected in the periphery of the cell membrane region, suggesting that the mechanism of copper resistance is similar to that previously described for Pseudomonas species. The ESI technique was used to detect copper in the membrane region. Copper-resistance in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria 484 is inducible and occurs by accumulation of the metal and not by efflux mechanism as has been suggested. The growth curve also showed that this system is inducible.
The karyotype of Akodon cursor (initially identified as A. arviculoides) had been reported with chromosomal numbers 14 and 15 in the South and Southeast and 16 in Northeastern Brazil. We found the three cytotypes in a region of Southern Brazil. The G-band patterns of these specimens were the same as those from southeastern and northeastern regions. Seventeen different combinations of chromosomes due to a complex rearrangement in pair 1 and pericentric inversions in pairs 2 and 3 were identified. Seven of these combinations are new to in the literature.
Chromatid gaps and breaks induced by the restriction endonucleases AluI and BamHI in the long arm of chromosome 1 of Chinese hamster ovary cells were microphotometrically scanned and mapped to a quantitative G-band map. More than 50% of chromatid breaks appeared as chromatin losses of greater than 5% of the total arm length. The majority of chromatid gaps and breaks as well as chromatin losses induced by both restriction endonucleases were non-randomly located in a region from 0.35 to 0.65 relative length units of the long arm of chromosome 1. We suggest that the access of these endonucleases to chromosomal DNA depends on the local organization of the chromatin.
A photographic map was made of polytene chromosomes of ovarian nurse cells of Anopheles bellator females. The chromosomes of this species have complete or partial homology with those of A. cruzii, mainly in the telomeric and centromeric regions. Variability at the single band level was observed as asymmetric bands at seven different positions. One inversion (3Ra) was detected in the 3R arm.
The transferrin gene locus (Tf) was investigated in five populations of the Amazon turtle (Podocnemis expansa) sampled from five geographical areas in the Amazon region. This locus was polymorphic, showing three genotypes (Tfª Tfª, Tfª Tf b and Tf b Tf b), presumably encoded by two co-dominant alleles, Tfª and Tf b. All populations showed good genetic balance according to Hardy-Weinberg expectations, and may sustain the hypothesis of a single stock in the area investigated. The data are consistent with free flow of genes among the population samples examined.
Gene frequencies at the k-casein locus were estimated in six different herds (N = 180) of Argentinean Creole cattle. The results showed a strong influence of subdivision and independent evolution on the divergence of the observed gene frequencies. These results suggest that the population structure of these herds favor the maintenance of polymorphism, which is of crucial importance for the long-time survival of populations.
This report describes the karyotype of a Brazilian Diplopod species (Arthropoda), Sandalodesmus gasparae (Schubart, Acta Zool. Lilloana Inst. "Miguel Lillo" 2: 321-440,1944), collected from a termite mound Cornitermes bequaerti. This species has 2n = 12. The sex pair could not be distinguished.
The karyotypes of the following six species of Brazilian Psocoptera are reported: Caecillius sp. (Caecillidae), Triplocania ? caudata New (Ptiloneuridae), Brachinodiscus cf. lepidus (Banks) (Psocidae), Psococerastis interrupta New (Psocidae), Ptycta nr reticulata New (Psocidae) and Trichadenotecnum sinuatum New (Psocidae). All of them had males with 2n = 17 and an XO sex determining mechanism.
Seven sources of resistance to the two predominant races IB-1 and IB-9 of the rice blast pathogen Pyricularia grisea were selected based on leaf blast reaction in tests conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions. Crosses involving resistant and susceptible parents were made to study the inheritance of the disease reaction for different sources of resistance. The F1 and F2 progenies of all crosses, including backcrosses to resistant and susceptible parents, were tested for reaction to leaf blast. The data showed that resistance is controlled by one to three genes that segregate independently in most of the donors. Non-allelic interaction among resistance genes, including dominant epistasis, was identified.
Karyotypes of six species of the genus Stevia from Southern Brazil were studied, utilizing root tip metaphases. All species were diploid with 2n = 22 chromosomes. It was possible to identify each species by chromosome morphology. The basic chromosome number for Brazilian species of Stevia is X = 11. This number is also found in almost all South American species. We suggest that in Stevia there is an evolutionary trend toward chromosomal rearrangement, caused mainly by pericentric inversions. It was found that, in addition to aneuploidy and polyploidy, chromosomal rearrangements are common in the tribe Eupatorieae.
Six common bean cultivars were crossed in diallel and the segregant populations were assessed in the F2 and F3 generations to compare methodologies for parental selection in a breeding program based on hybridization. The cultivars involved in the diallel were A 114, A 77, ESAL 686, Milionário, Carioca, and Flor de Mayo. The segregant F2 and F3 generations were assessed on the experimental campus of the Universidade Federal de Larvas, in July 1994. It was found that the cultivars differed in their general combining ability (GCA). Flor de Mayo, which belongs to the Durango race, had the largest positive GCA estimate for grain field, and the cultivars from the Mesoamerican race, Milionário and A 114, the smallest GCA estimates. For flowering, the cultivar that most contributed to reduced plant cycle was ESAL 686. There was agreement among the results obtained from the diallel and the estimates of the parameter m + a of the populations. However, it was evident that the estimate of genetic variance of the populations should be considered as a condition to identify the hybrid population that will produce a line with high performance.
The use of mentor pollen has enabled successful hybridization between cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, and the wild species M. pohlii Warwa. Killed pollen of a cross compatible type produced by freeze-thawing was mixed with incompatible pollen and the mixes were dusted on stigmas. This treatment resulted in production of seed in 4.9% of the total pollinations, compared to 0% in the case of untreated pollinations. The use of a bridge species, M. neusana Nassar, through the hybrid M. pohlii and M. neusana also proved successful in overcoming interspecific barriers between cassava and M. pohlii.
We report on a Brazilian boy, born to normal and nonconsanguineous parents and presenting facial asymmetry, hypotonia, cerebral anomalies, bilateral anophthalmia, supraorbital cysts, skin tags, cleft lip and palate, micrognatia, glossoptosis, cryptorchidism, and genital hypoplasia.