ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crops on the agronomic performance of maize during five crop seasons in a clayey Inceptisol with reduced mineral nitrogen (N) inputs. The treatments were seven single cover crops: white oats (Avena sativa L.), black oats (Avena strigose Schreb.), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), canola (Brassica napus L.), vetch (Vicia sativa L.), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L. and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.); a mix (black oats + vetch and a fallow. During summer, in succession to the cover crops, maize was grown under no-tillage. The attributes were evaluated in two stages of maize development: flowering (morphological components and physiological maturation (yield components). Differences in morphologica and yield variables were observed in all crop seasons, with emphasis on grain yield, number of grains per row (NGR and ear length (EL). The use of vetch showed greater contribution to the development of maize in relation to the other cover crops used, promoting an increase in stem diameter (SD), E and NGR in all crop season and directly reflecting in higher grain yield. On the other hand, when maize was grown under cover crops commonly used in southern Brazil, such as ryegras and white oats, the yield was similar to fallow. The results showed that vetch promoted higher maize yields, probably by N mineralization and reinforce the hypothesis that cover crops in the off-season can aggregate benefits to crops in succession, especially in terms of nutrition.
ABSTRACT This study investigated the effect of different phosphites on the control of coffee leaf rust (CLR) caused by Hemileia vastatrix, considered the major disease affecting coffee yield worldwide. Three-month-old coffee plants were sprayed with two doses each of the phosphite solutions (standar., and double), as follows: K (40% P2O5; 1.., and 3 mL∙L-1), K (30% P2O5; ., and 6 mL∙L-1), Cu (2.., and 5 mL∙L-1), Mn+Zn (., and 6 mL∙L-1., and Na (., and 6 mL∙L-1) 24 h before being inoculated with H. vastatrix. Leaves were not washed or washed with deionized water after the foliar phosphites spray. Plants sprayed with water served as the control treatment. Inoculation was performed on the abaxial side of the first pair of expanded leaves using a camel hairbrush with a suspension of urediniospores (1 mg per leaf). All phosphites applied at the standard doses (from 1.5 to 3 mL∙L-1) reduced the total number of pustules (TNP) per leaf by 28-69% regardless of washing treatment. The biggest reductions were observed for Cu phosphite, which decreased the TNP per leaf by 6., and 69% withou., and with leaf washing, respectively. A similar trend was observed when the double doses of phosphites (from 3 to 6 mL∙L-1) were used, though Na phosphite without leaf washin., and Mn/Zn phosphite withou., and with leaf washing were not efficient to reduce the TNP per leaf. Without leaf washing, only C., and Na phosphites decreased CLR severity at the standard doses (53-61%), whereas all phosphites, except the Mn/Zn phosphite, reduced CLR severity at the double dose. The CLR severity was decreased using K 30%, K 40., and Cu phosphites when applied at the standard doses with leaf washing (41-59%). With double doses, only C., and Na phosphites decreased CLR severity by 55% for both treatments. In conclusion, the efficiency of the phosphites for CLR control varied according to the accompanying cation, dos., and washing conditions. The Cu phosphite resulted in the best CLR control regardless of the dose use., and the washing conditions.
ABSTRACT Hybrid rice seeds from sterile lines have displayed a new type of heavy chalkiness in the subtropical zone of China in recent years, which was named top-gray chalkiness, resulting in a lower quality of hybrid rice seeds in large-scale production. In this study, the morphological characteristics of the chalky hybrid rice seeds were investigated, the microscopic structures of their chalky parts observed, the α-amylase activit and relative nutrient content analyzed, and the germination indexe and microorganism populations of the chalky hybrid seeds determined. The results revealed that top-gray chalkiness in hybrid rice seeds originated from the top site of the grain, and that the chalky part was probably infected by bacteri and fungi to form a gray colo and which further resulted in a lower germination rat and germination potential. This observed chalkiness in rice seeds differed from the previously reported rice chalkiness categories both in the occurrence positio and color. Besides, the amylopectin content declined in the chalky par and the protein content in the chalky part increased as compared to the normal seeds. This research could provide technical support for the hybrid rice breeding enterprises during the breeding of hybrid rice seeds in large-scale production.
ABSTRACT Climate and soil databases can be used for delineating homogenous environmental zones over large areas of agricultural land to support agricultural research planning and spatial extrapolation of the results of field experiments. In other countries, such framework has proven useful to improve the efficiency and impact of investments in agricultural research. Furthermore, this approach can also contribute to identify key locations with the greatest potential for spatial extrapolation in terms of crop production area with similar climate and soils. In this paper, soil and weather databases covering the main agricultural land in Brazil were developed, and crop-specific technology extrapolation domains (TEDs) were identified for maize, soybean, and sugarcane crops. These databases were useful and viable option for the generation of homogeneous zones maps for different crops and regions. Given the spatial scale of the database applied, it was possible to represent a large area in few TEDs, without losing information regarding climate and soil variability, facilitating the spatial extrapolation of technologies throughout Brazil. Few TEDs are needed to represent a large part of the area of sugarcane (32 TEDs to cover 51% of the area), maize (21 TEDs for 51% of the area), and soybean (17 TEDs for 50% of the total area). Such information may help several areas of the agricultural sector, such as supporting new research that works on areas with large scales, or areas not explored yet.
ABSTRACT The quality and phenolic compound composition might be affected by production system due to microclimate around the bunches and sunlight interception provided by vegetative canopy architecture and environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the quality and antioxidant potential of ‘BRS Cora’ grapes with different trellis systems and rootstocks in rainy seasons under tropical conditions. Three trellis systems and two rootstocks were studied in production cycles during the first halves of 2017 and 2018, using a randomized-block experimental design. Interactions between the trellis systems,rootstocks and cycles differentially affect the fruit quality. The association between vertical shoot positioning or an overhead trellis with ‘IAC 766’ induced higher polyphenol compound contents. In turn, the trellis systems overhead trellis and lyre provided greater stability for the berry weight, soluble solids, total soluble sugar contents, yellow flavonoids, total extractable polyphenol compounds or antioxidant activity in both production cycles. The results of this study inferred that the grape quality and phenolic compound composition were not only affected by some specific climatic factors but also by the trellis system, rootstock, and the interaction between the three factors.
ABSTRACT Interspecific competitions are important mechanisms in structuring ecological communities, including agroecosystems, in which different species may share the same food resource. In melons, two major pests coexist in time and space, Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The former feeds on the leaf mesophyll, while the latter on the phloem sap. Therefore, the same niche exploitation can trigger interactive processes between both populations. The present research aimed to determine if there are positive or negative interactions between whiteflies and leafminers under field conditions. The experiment was conducted in four commercial melon fields in northeast Brazil in two planting seasons. Thirty random plants were weekly selected for detection of whitefly nymphs and leafminer larvae throughout the entire crop cycle. The data was organized and analyzed considering the species abundance of L. sativae (larvae) and B. tabaci (nymphs and adults) in the same plant. Thus, the coabundance of species was investigated by using regressions with Poisson errors. The results suggest different fractions of negative, positive and neutral (not significant relationships) coabundance between the two species. Among 34 significant interactions, 56% were negative, suggesting that more than half of significant interactions are due to interspecific competition with negative coabundance.
ABSTRACT The genetic improvement of sour passion fruit has the main objective of obtaining genotypes with high fruit yield and quality. The determination of the ideal early selection is extremely relevant to reduce costs and time in the selection of promising genotypes for use in genetic improvement programs. In this context, this work aimed to determine the ideal selection phase through estimates of genetic parameters, phenotypic, genotypic correlations and analysis of repeatability. A total of 14 yellow passion fruit hybrids in Lençóis (Bahia State, Brazil) were evaluated in a randomized block design with five replications and nine agronomic traits from three harvests with five fruits evaluated per repetition. Genetic parameters, repeatability coefficient and phenotypic and genotypic correlations were estimated for each evaluation cycle. For most parameters, the traits changed according to the evaluation cycle. Most of the genetic parameters showed favorable genetic conditions for the selection in the first harvest. The correlations between the traits fruit weight, peel and seedless pulp weight, fruit length and diameter were more stable in the different harvests. Through the repeatability analysis based on the principal components of covariance and correlation, it was possible to estimate a sample of 13 fruits per hybrid for prediction with accuracy of 90% for the physical traits of sour passion fruit.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dip wash treatments with 2% citric acid (CA), 0.2% benzoic acid (BA), 0.2% sorbic acid (SA) and acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) followed by 2 kJ·m–2 ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the postharvest decay and quality of strawberry fruit cultivar ‘Malvina’, as compared to control, and UV alone treated samples. Weight loss, firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total phenolics content, total anthocyanins content, antioxidant activity and decay incidence of control and treated strawberry fruits were investigated during cold storage at 8 °C for 21 days. The result showed that UV-treated fruits had a lower weight loss, higher titratable acidity, phenolic and anthocyanin content and were firmer than the untreated fruits. Dip wash in AEW before UVC treatment reduced weight loss and increased firmness of strawberry fruits but did not significantly affect total phenolic content, total anthocyanins content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant activity and fruit decay. Dip wash treatment with organic acids followed by UVC irradiation was significantly more effective than UV treatment alone in reducing fruit decay and weight loss and in maintaining at higher levels titratable acidity, total anthocyanins content, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of strawberries during refrigerated storage. The present findings demonstrate that dip wash treatment with 0.2% SA, 0.2% BA or 2% CA followed by UV treatment can be an effective method for maintaining the phytochemical content and delaying the decay of strawberry fruit during cold storage.
ABSTRACT In viticulture, training systems and rootstocks are crucial factors in the growth and development of plants, thus affecting the production and quality of grapes. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the best combination of rootstock and training system for ‘Sauvignon Blanc’, in Jundiaí, state of São Paulo, Brazil. To assess the data, a randomized block design in a 2 × 2 factorial scheme was used, that is, two rootstocks (‘IAC 766 Campinas’ and ‘106-8 Mgt’) and two training systems (low and high espaliers), with four replications. The characteristics assessed were production, physicochemical analysis and concentration of bioactive compounds. With regard to the physicochemical composition of the grape must, the results indicated that the tested combinations are within the standard requirements for the winemaking industry; outcomes may change according to the rootstock used, i.e., an increase in production or an increase in the nutritional quality of the fruits. Nevertheless, ‘106-8 Mgt’ rootstock showed great yield in both training systems, that is, an increase of up to 80%. Finally, ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ must be grafted on to ‘IAC 766 Campinas’ rootstock through a low espalier system to achieve a high content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high antioxidant activity.
ABSTRACT Biochar is a material produced by the pyrolysis of agro-industrial waste, which has become one of the most promising management tools to improve soil quality. The aim was to determine the effects of incorporating biochar from different coffee wastes in sandy soil, cropped with maize, on soil chemical and microbial attributes. The experiment followed a factorial design 2 × 3 + 1 with two types of biochar, including coffee ground (CG) or coffee husk (CH) in 3 doses (4, 8, and 16 t·ha-1) and a control fertilized solely with bovine manure (3 t·ha-1). The variables analyzed were soil organic carbon, chemical attributes, microbial biomass (C, N and P), soil basal respiration and microbial gene abundance (16S rRNA, 18S rRNA and nifH gene). Most chemical attributes were strongly increased by CH application, while CG at 8 t·ha-1 increased the soil C:N ratio (3.5 times), P (2.1 times) and K+ (7.9 times) and at 4 t·ha-1 increased the C content, microbial biomass C and N (3, 2.1 and 1.6 times, respectively). The application of CG biochar at 16 t·ha-1 showed trend to increase the abundance of bacteria, fungi and diazotrophic genes (11, 10 and 2%, respectively). Contribution of both coffee biochar types, but mainly CH, was more effective than the soil that received organic manure alone. Biochar from coffee wastes is a promising tool to improve sandy soil quality.
ABSTRACT To identify the optimum intercropping system of sorghum and clover in terms of quantity and quality of forage yield, a two-year experiment was conducted in a semi-arid region of Iran, during the 2016 and 2017 growing seasons. Treatments consisted of eight cropping systems: S75C25 (75% sorghum + 25% clover), S50C50 and S25C75, as replacement series; S100C50, S50C100, and S100C100 as additive series; and sole cultures of sorghum and clover. The highest and lowest dry matter (DM) yield (29.17 and 10.71 Mg·ha-1) were found in the S100C100 and clover monoculture systems, respectively. Although the highest content of crude protein (CP) and digestible dry matter (DDM) were recorded from clover monoculture, the maximum yield of CP and DDM were obtained from the S100C100. Increasing the proportion of clover in intercropping decreased the acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber, increased the relative feed value, net energy for lactation and dry matter intake. Increasing the proportion of sorghum in intercropping improved the yield of DM, CP and DDM. The land equivalent ratio for DM yield was higher than one in all intercropping treatments but were significantly higher in the additive intercropping systems. Overall, it could be concluded that sorghum and clover additive intercropping systems increased forage yield and quality, however if simultaneous increase of the quantity and quality of forage is the interest of this study then the S100C100 system had a significant advantage over other treatments and can be a suitable alternative for sorghum and clover monoculture systems in semi-arid regions.
ABSTRACT Nickel (Ni) was the latest element to have its nutritional essentiality recognized for plants (Brown et al. 1987). It is a component of various enzymes, including glyoxalases (family I), hydrogenases, superoxide dismutase and urease (Chen et al. 2009). Inadequate Ni supply promotes changes in the plant metabolism, including processes related to nitrogen metabolism, such as amino acids, urea and ureides metabolisms (Rodríguez-Jiménez et al. 2016; Bai et al. 2006). Legumes that are dependent on N2 fixation (e.g., soybean) have their process impaired by Ni deficiency, because this element is an essential catalytic cofactor of [NiFe]-hydrogenase, an enzyme found in some symbiotic bacteria that recycles the H2 produced by a side reaction of nitrogenase in root nodules formed by the plant-bacteria association (Cammack 1995; Bagyinka 2014). Moreover, Ni has shown the potential to control soybean diseases, such as powdery mildew (Barcelos et al. 2018) and Asian soybean rust (Einhardt et al. 2020a; 2020b).
ABSTRACT Genetic variability is essential for gains in breeding programs. The cyclic process of progeny recombination is a strategy to raise the chances of selecting better genotype combinations. The objective of this study was to identify superior progenies between common bean genes groups in first recurrent selection cycle for root system traits. Parents of the Andean and Middle American gene groups were hybridized in a complete diallel scheme. Thereafter, the parents and F1 and F2 populations were planted in the field. To establish the base population of recurrent selection (C0), seven segregating populations (F2) with superior performance for root system were selected and intercrossed, resulting in recombinant progenies (C1). To estimate the selection gain, the parents and C0 and C1 genotypes were compared with regard to the following variables: total root length (TRL, cm), projected root area (PRA, cm2), root volume (VOL, cm3) and number of root tips (RT). The difference between genotype combinations indicates the presence of genetic variability and effectiveness of recurrent selection. The mean genetic progress for root system-related traits was 12.9% (TRL), 12.6% (PRA), 12% (VOL) and 11.5% (RT) in the first recombination cycle. The mean phenotypic performance of seven of the C1 progenies exceeded that of their parents for all root system traits. These progenies are promising as base populations of the next selection cycle.
ABSTRACT The use of irrigation can improve the productivity and nutritional quality of the forage cactus in environments with a water deficit, resulting in profit to the producer. The productive performance, bromatological composition and economic benefits of using irrigation were investigated in this study with forage cactus clones regulated deficit irrigation (RDI). The study was conducted in an experimental design of randomised blocks, in a factorial scheme with subdivided plots. The plots consisted of water regimes based on the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) (rainfed, 40, 80 and 120% ETc). The cactus clones [‘Miúda’ (MIU), ‘Orelha de Elefante Mexicana’ (OEM) and ‘IPA Sertânia’ (IPA)] comprised the subplots. The total number of cladodes per plant, the fresh and dry matter yields and the bromatological composition were evaluated. Economic viability was assessed using the net revenue and benefit to cost ratio (BCR). The irrigation depths did not increase the yield of the clones. The OEM clone showed 276 and 343% greater fresh and dry matter production, respectively, when compared to the IPA clone; however, when compared with the MIU clone, it was 63%, both on a fresh and dry matter production. The water regimes had no effect on the nutritional quality of the cactus. Only IPA showed no profit during the first cycle (BCR < 1). It can be concluded that planting one irrigated hectare with the OEM and MIU clones offer economic returns starting from the first production cycle (18 months).
ABSTRACT Actinobacteria of the genus Streptomyces are part of the soil microbiota from rice-growing areas and along with other microorganisms, such as Trichoderma spp., combine to act as natural enemies against the destructive soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, causal agent of rice sheath blight disease. In this study, seven actinobacteria of the genus Streptomyces and three fungi of the genera Trichoderma and Purpureocillium were isolated from soils cultivated with rice using the serial dilution method. Streptomyces spp. M2A2 was selected for its ability to significantly reduce the in vitro growth of R. solani by 52% after 96 h by antibiosis in dual culture, while in the control treatment the mycelial growth was 100%. Furthermore, biocontrol efficacy of treated plants of the susceptible cultivar Fedearroz 68 with actinobacteria was confirmed and the onset of symptoms were delayed up to 14 days, compared to the control treatment. Rice plants treated with Streptomyces spp. M2A2 showed lesions of R. solani reaching 0.7% of the plant height, the effectiveness of this treatment was similar to the difenoconazole treatment, whereas in the control treatment, the lesions covered 34% of the plant height. When compared to the antagonist fungus Trichoderma spp. M2H1, Streptomyces spp. M2A2 presented a better performance of biological control. The results clearly demonstrated that Streptomyces spp. M2A2 isolate from soils of rice growing areas has biocontrol efficiency against R. solani and therefore can be a promising biocontrol agent.