ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the protective effect of dexmedetomidine on gastric injury induced by ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in rats. Methods: A total of 18 male albino Wistar rats were divided groups as: gastric ischemia reperfusion (GIR), gastric ischemia reperfusion and 50 μg/kg dexmedetomidine (DGIR) and sham operation (HG) group. After the third hour of reperfusion, the biochemical and histopathological examinations were performed on the removed stomach tissue. Results: Malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were found to be significantly higher in GIR compared to HG (p < 0.05). A statistically significant decrease was observed at the DGIR compared to the GIR for oxidants levels. Total glutathione (tGSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were statistically significantly decreased at the GIR, and antioxidants levels were found to be significantly higher in the DGIR (p < 0.05) There was no significant difference between HG and DGIR in terms of SOD (p = 0.097). The DGIRs’ epitheliums, glands and vascular structures were close to normal histological formation. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine is found to prevent oxidative damage on the stomach by increasing the antioxidant effect. These results indicate that dexmedetomidine may be useful in the treatment of ischemia-reperfusion-related gastric damage.
ABSTRACT Purpose: In this study, hemostatic efficacy of Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS), a new generation hemostatic agent, was compared in the presence of heparin effect. Methods: Forty-eight Wistar albino rats were divided into two main groups as heparinized and nonheparinized, and these two main groupswere divided into six subgroups as control, Surgicel and ABS (n = 8). Grade 2 liver injury was performed on rats as standard. All groups were compared in terms of weight, laceration surface area, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), international normalized ratio (INR), bleeding time, bleeding amount, hemoglobin (Hb) levels, macroscopic and microscopic reactions to the agent used. Results: Whereas there was no statistically significant difference between weight, laceration surface area, PT, INR and preoperative Hb values in the heparinized and nonheparinized groups, postoperative Hb, bleeding time, bleeding amount and aPTT values were statistically different (p < 0.05). In the heparin-hemostat interaction, the ABS group had the lowest bleeding in the heparinized group in terms of the amount of bleeding compared to the control and Surgicel groups (F = 0.764; p = 0.047). In macroscopic and microscopic comparison, there was no difference between the groups in terms of cell necrosis andfresh bleeding (p > 0.05), it was found that the Surgicel group had statistical significantly higher reaction scores (p < 0.05) than the other groups in terms of other parameters. Conclusions: Ankaferd Blood Stopper can be safely and effectively used in surgical practice and in patients with additional diseases requiring heparinization, since it causes minimal reaction in the liver and decreases the amount of bleeding especially in the heparinized group.
ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the hepatic protective effect of both remote and local postconditioning (POS). Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: sham group(SHAM), ischemia-reperfusion group (IR), local ischemic POS group (lPOS) and remote ischemic POS group (rPOS). Animals were subjected to liver ischemia for 30 min. Local ischemic POS group consisted of four cycles of 5 min liver ischemia, followed by 5 min reperfusion (40 min). Remote ischemic POS group consisted of four cycles of 5 min hind limb ischemia, followed by 5 min hind limb perfusion after the main liver ischemia period. After 190 minutes median and left liver lobes were harvested for biochemical and histopathology analysis. Results: All the conditioning techniques were able to increase the level of bothglutathione reductase and peroxidase, showing higher values in the rPOS group when compared to the lPOS. Also, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were higher in all intervention groups when compared to SHAM, but rPOS had the lower rates of increase, showing the best result. The histopathology analysis showed that all groups had worst injury levels than SHAM, but rPOS had lower degrees of damage when compared to the lPOS, although it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Remote postconditioning is a promising technique to reduce liver ischemia-reperfusion injury, once it increased antioxidants substances and reduced the damage.
ABSTRACT Purpose: Histologically evaluate the effects of low frequency electrical stimulation in the treatment of Achilles tendon injuries in rats. Methods: Thirty-four rats underwent Achilles tendon tenotomy and tenorrhaphy. They were randomly allocated in two groups. Half of the sample constituted the experiment group, whose lesions were stimulated with 2 Hz, nonpolarized current and 1 mA, for 14 days. The other animals formed the control group. They were evaluated at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. The histological study was carried out, the collagen density and the wound maturity index were measured. Results: The healing score was higher in the group stimulated at the 6th week (p = 0.018). The density collagen 1 was higher in the group treated at the three times (p = 0.004) and that collagen 3 was higher in the group treated at 6 weeks (p = 0.004). Together, collagen 1 and 3 were higher in the group stimulated at 4 and 6 weeks (p = 0.009, p = 0.004). The maturity index was higher in this group at the three moments (p = 0.017 p = 0.004 and p = 0.009). Conclusion: Low frequency electric stimulation improved healing and increased the quantity of collagen.
ABSTRACT Purpose Develop a 3D model for the simulation of laparoscopic inguinal hernioplasty transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP). Methods This is an experimental study, 18 participants were selected, divided into three groups, experimental (GE) surgeons in training, control (GC) experienced surgeons and Shaw (GS) nonexperienced surgeons. The simulation in the 3D model was carried out in 6 sessions fulfilling the 5 stages. Opening the peritoneum with the creation of the preperitoneal space; identification of important structures; hernia identification and reduction; placement and fixation of the mesh in Cooper’s ligament and closure of the peritoneum. Results In the 1st stage, the GE obtained an average of 1.25 ± 0.42 in the 1st session and 3.25 ± 0.62 in the 6th session (p = 0.05) and in the 5th stage 0.91 ± 0.29 in the first session. 1st session and 1.91 ± 0.29 in the 6th session (p = 0.001), with no significant difference between groups. The learning and skill curve in the SG represented 1.08 ± 0.29 1st and 3.50 ± 0.90 6th session (p = 0.001). Conclusions The creation of a systematization of training in simulation applied to the three-dimensional model enabled gain in laparoscopic skills and underpinned its theoretical and practical foundations.
ABSTRACT Purpose The present study explored the potential therapeutic role of oleuropein in sepsis-induced heart injury along with the role of GSK-3β/NF-kB signaling pathway. Methods Sepsis-induced myocardial injury was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in rats. The cardiac injury was assessed by measuring the levels of cTnI and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB). Sepsis-induced inflammation was assessed by measuring interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10 and HMGB1 levels. The different doses of oleuropein (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) were given prior to CLP. Oleuropein (20 mg/kg) was administered after 6 hof CLP. The expressions of GSK-3β, p-GSK-3β (Ser9) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were measured in heart homogenates. Results Cecal ligation and puncture was associated with myocardial injury, an increase in IL-6, a decrease in IL-10 and an increase in HMGB1. Moreover, it decreased the ratio of p-GSK-3β/GSK-3β and increased the expression of p-NF-kB. Pretreatment with oleuropein attenuated CLP-induced myocardial injury and systemic inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of oleuropein after the onset of CLP also attenuated cardiac injury and inflammation. It also restored CLP-induced changes in the HMGB1 levels, the ratio of p-GSK-3β/GSK-3β and expression of p- NF-kB. Conclusions Oleuropein attenuates sepsis-induced systemic inflammation and myocardial injury by inhibiting NF-kB and GSK-3β signaling.
ABSTRACT Purpose To investigate the relationship between atherosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and CXC chemokine receptor type 2 (CXCR2). Methods Mouse AAA model was established by embedding angiotensin-II pump (1000 ng/kg/min) in ApoE-/- mice. Mice were received SB225002, a selective CXCR2 antagonist, for treatment. Blood pressure was recorded, and CXCR2+ macrophages were examined by flow cytometry analysis. Terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was performed to detect cell apoptosis of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Macrophages were isolated from ApoE-/- mice and treated with Ang II and/or SB225002. Dihydroethidium staining was carried out to determine reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to determine the production of IL-1β and TNF-α. The corresponding gene expressions were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), western blot, and immunohistochemistry staining. Results We found that Ang II activated the expression of CXCR2 in monocytes during the formation of AAA. Inhibition of CXCR2 significantly reduced the size of AAA, attenuated inflammation and phenotypic changes in blood vessels. Ang II-induced macrophages exhibited elevated ROS activity, and elevated levels of 1β and TNF-α, which were then partly abolished by SB225002. Conclusions CXCR2 plays an important role in AAA, suggesting that inhibiting CXCR2 may be a new treatment for AAA.
ABSTRACT Purpose To study the Periplaneta americana L. extract Ento-B on the treatment of chronic ulcerative colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and acetic acid in rats and to explore its primary mechanism of action. Methods Using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene combined with acetic acid to induce chronic ulcerative colitis (chronic UC) in rats. The sulfasalazine (400 mg/kg) and Ento-B (200 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg,50 mg/kg) were given by intragastric administration and the effect was evaluated according to the disease activity index (DAI) score, colon mucosal injury index (CMDI) score, histopathological score (HS) and the serum levels of Interleukin-4(IL-4), Interleukin-10(IL-10), Tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), Malondialdehyde(MDA), Superoxide dismutase(SOD) and Inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS.) Results Compared with the model group, all doses of Ento-B could reduce the score of CMDI (p < 0.05), HS(p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), significantly increased the expression of IL-4, IL-10, SOD (p < 0.01) and decreased the levels of TNF-α, MDA, iNOS in serum of UC rats, significantly improving the degree of colon lesionsin UC rats. Conclusions Ento-B may play an important role in the treatment of ulcerative colitis induced byUC rats. The mechanism may be related to the increased expression of IL-4, IL-10, SOD and reduced expression of TNF-α, MDA, iNOS.
ABSTRACT Purpose This study aimed to elaborate a hydrogel constituted by carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC), hyaluronic acid (HA) and silver (Ag) and to evaluate its healing effect on partial-thickness burn wounds experimentally induced in rats. Methods CMC was obtained by chitosan reacting with monochloroacetic acid. The carboxymethylation was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the morphologicalcharacteristics of chitosan and CMC. After the experimental burn wound induction, the animals (n = 126) were treated with different CMC formulations, had their occlusive dressings changed daily and were followed through 7, 14 and 30 days. Morphometric, macroscopic and microscopic aspects and collagen quantification were evaluated. Results Significative wound contraction, granulation tissue formation, inflammatory infiltration and collagen fibers deposit throughout different phases of the healing process were observed in the CMC hydrogels treated groups. Conclusions The results showed that, in the initial phase of the healing process, the most adequate product was the CMC/HA/Ag association, while in the other phases the CMC/HA association was the best one to promote the healing of burn wounds.
ABSTRACT Purpose To present a model to reproduce the clinical condition, in order to better understand the pathophysiology of neurological impairment related to intoxication. Methods Twenty-five Wistar rats were used and divided into five groups: Shaw group (WHI), water gavage group (WGV), star fruit gavage group (SGV), nephropathic group with water gavage (NPW), nephropathic group with star fruit gavage (NPS).Nephropathic groups were submitted to surgery, developing nephropathy. After surgery, they received preestablished gavage with star fruit juice or water. The electroencephalographic records were evaluated in the experimental nephropathic group that received gavage of star fruit juice. Results To assess the induction of neurotoxicity using electroencephalographic data, the NPS group demonstrated the presence of epileptic seizures associated with star fruit intoxication. Conclusions The experimental model herein presented was adequate to reproduce the clinical condition experienced by nephropathic patients who ingest star fruit juice, establishing, thus, an experimental model utterly important for the study of the neurological toxicity process.
ABSTRACT Purpose The spleen is relevant in blood purification, hematopoiesis, metabolism, and immune response to antigens, in addition to the storage and control on the release of metals and amino acids. Its functions concerning reproduction characteristics are still unknown. The objective was to study the influence of splenectomies on reproduction. Methods This study analyzed 25 mice couples, distributed into five groups: group 1 – control, no surgery: group 2 – control, submitted to laparotomy and laparorrhaphy only; group 3 – splenectomy in male mice; group 4 – splenectomy in female mice; group 5 – splenectomy in male and female mice. The animals were studied as regards the number of gestations and offspring generated in each gestation. Results A decrease in both the number of gestations and the number of offspring was verified in the male mice that had received a splenectomy when coupled with normal female mice. It is important to emphasize lower reproduction level when paired asplenic males with normal females, otherwise, the couples in which both mice had been splenectomized did not present change in the reproduction pattern. Conclusions A reduction in the number of pregnancies and litters occurs in mice couples when the male mice were previously splenectomized.
ABSTRACT Purpose To analyze the effectiveness of vertical gastrectomy in the treatment of obese patients, adherence to clinical follow-up and the influence of factors such as gender and age. Methods This is a retrospective, observational and descriptive study, conducted with patients undergoing vertical gastrectomy, operated at Hospital São Domingos, between January 2016 and July 2018. Results Most patients undergoing vertical gastrectomy were female (n = 193, 72.28%) and had a mean age of37.11 ± 8.96 years old. The loss of follow-up was 56.18%. Among adherent patients (n = 117; 43.82%), most patients were female (n = 89; 76.07%) and had a mean age of 37.92 ± 9.85 years old. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the adherents in the preoperative was 37.85 ± 3.72 kg/m2. Both BMI and excess weight (EW) showed a statistically significant difference between pre- and postoperative period. Percentage of excess weight loss (% EWL) was satisfactory for 96.6% of adherent patients. Older patients had a statistically significant lower % EWL compared to the other groups. Conclusions Vertical gastrectomy was effective in the treatment of obese patients, with significant weight loss.
ABSTRACT Purpose The biomechanical properties of the polyurethanes implant material derived from castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) were evaluated in a noncritical bone defect model in rat tibia. Methods After three weeks of the implant application, the tibias were tested by means of the biomechanical three-point flexion test and resistance, rigidity, energy at maximum load and maximum energy were evaluated. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed. Results It was found that the group that received the implant behaved the same as the intact control group and also showed a significant increase in maximum load compared to the spontaneous repair group. Conclusions Our results indicate that the tibias with the implant material in a noncritical bone defect recover normal biomechanical parameters in less time than spontaneously.
ABSTRACT Purpose Although transplanting two kidneys from a single donor to two recipients has some advantages, the right and left kidneys are not anatomically identical; thus, a surgical procedure considering the anatomical features of the donor kidneys is needed when transplanting them into the opposite renal fossae. Based on vast experience, the surgical details of pig orthotopic kidney transplantation from one donor to two recipients was reported. Methods When the right kidney was transplanted to the left renal fossa, the graft was inverted upside down, not backwards, thus ensuring that the anteroposterior relationship of the renal vessels was maintained and anatomically natural vascular anastomosis could be performed. Results Using this technique, we could have developed a pig experimental model that is safe and has a high success rate, even for researchers in the middle of their training. This technique of inverting the graft upside down was reported in human kidney transplantation to make vascular anastomosis easier. Conclusions In pig orthotopic kidney transplantation from one donor to two recipients, an anatomically natural vascular anastomosis could be performed via inverted grafting when the right kidney was transplanted into the left renal fossa.
ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate clinical outcome following minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) associated with percutaneous transplantation of allogeneic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) at the tibial fracture site in dogs. Methods Thirty-six dogs presenting with nonarticular complete tibial fracture were included in this study. All fractures were treated by the same MIPO technique. The animals were divided in group 1 (n = 20) received a percutaneous application of 3 × 106 AD-MSC at the fracture site and group 2 (n = 16) did not receive any adjuvant treatment. Postoperative radiographic examinations were made at 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. Results Fifty-eight percent of the patients were classified as skeletally immature. The median weight of the animals was 18.8 kg. The mean radiographic union time differed statistically between the AD-MSC group (28.5 days) and the control group (70.3 days). Sixty percent of dogs in group 1 and 56.25% of the group 2 were considered immature. Conclusions The use of allogeneic AD-MSC cell therapy and MIPO is a safe, viable and effective technique for promoting bone healing in nonarticular tibial fractures in dogs.