Abstract In a survey mucoralean fungi in the Brejo da Serra do Benedito, a fragment of Upland Forest in the semi-arid region of Pernambuco, Brazil, a specimen of Backusella gigacellularis was isolated. So far, B. gigacellularis (holotype) had only been isolated from soil in the Cerrado domain, in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil. This is the second report of B. gigacellularis worldwide, and the first record to northeastern Brazil. A detailed description, as well as the illustration of the specimen, are presented.
Resumo Em um levantamento de espécies de fungos Mucorales no Brejo da Serra do Benedito, um Brejo de altitude do semi-árido pernambucano, Brasil, um espécime de Backusella gigacellularis foi isolado. Até o momento, B. gigacellularis (holótipo) só havia sido isolada de solo no Domínio Cerrado, no estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. Este é segundo registro mundial de B. gigacellularis e o primeiro para o nordeste do Brasil, especificamente em um a área de Brejo de altitude. Nesse trabalho, são apresentadas uma descrição detalhada e ilustração do espécime isolado.
ABSTRACT As primary decomposers of organic matter, mucoralean fungi have an important ecological role in edaphic systems in the Atlantic Forest. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding how communities of Mucorales are structured in soils of Atlantic Forest areas, and whether these communities are influenced by edaphic attributes in this domain. Thus, the current study aimed to understand the influence of edaphic attributes linked to species richness, abundance and composition of Mucorales in dense ombrophilous forest, ‘tabuleiro’ forest, sandbank and mangrove ecosystems located in Pernambuco, Brazil. Altogether, twenty-three taxa, including seven new records, were reported from soil samples from the ecosystems. Species composition was similar among the ecosystems, except for mangrove, while species richness and diversity of Mucorales were highest in dense ombrophilous forest and ‘tabuleiro’. Together the soil variables were responsible for 35.5 % of the variation in species composition, with pH being responsible for 53.32 % and 47.24 % of the variation in richness and abundance of these communities, respectively. These data indicate that pH is the most important attribute in delimiting the structure of mucoralean communities in the study areas, with influence on the composition, richness, and abundance of these fungi.
ABSTRACT During a survey of Mucorales in soil from an upland forest area in Pernambuco, Brazil, two specimens were isolated and characterized based on their morphological, physiological, and molecular data (ITS and LSU rDNA). Phylogenetic analyses of the isolates revealed that the strains URM 8209 and URM 8210 are closely related to species of Absidia. URM 8209 forms conical, subglobose, and strawberry-shaped columellae and the sporangiospores are cylindrical and ellipsoid. URM 8210 produces hemispheric, subglobose, and strawberry-shaped columellae and the sporangiospores are globose, subglobose, ellipsoid, and short cylindrical. Based on evidence obtained through analysis of datasets (LSU and ITS rDNA regions), A. saloaensis sp. nov. (URM 8209) and A. multispora sp. nov. (URM 8210) are proposed here as novel species of Absidia. A table with morphological characteristics of Neotropical Absidia spp. is provided.
Abstract Mucorales comprises fungi commonly isolated as saprobes from soil, dung, stored grains and plants. Although these fungi have been studied in several countries, there are relatively a few reports of them in semi-arid areas. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess and compare the Mucorales communities in dung from different species and breeds of herbivores in the semi-arid of Pernambuco, based on the frequency of occurrence and species richness of these fungi. Samples of dung collected in the cities of Arcoverde, Serra Talhada and Sertânia were incubated in moist chambers in triplicate. Altogether, 24 taxa of Mucorales distributed in the genera Absidia, Circinella, Cunninghamella, Lichtheimia, Mucor, Pilobolus, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum were identified. The highest species richness was found in sheep excrement. Mucor circinelloides f. griseo-cyanus was the most common taxon, followed by M. ramosissimus. The similarity of the composition of Mucorales species was greatest between the excrements of Guzerá and Sindi breeds (bovine). All mucoralean species isolated are being cited for the first time from animal dung found in Caatinga and a new species of Mucor was recorded. An identification key for species of Mucorales from dung in the semi-arid region of Brazil is provided.
Nineteen taxa of Mucorales, belonging to Absidi, Apophysomyces, Cunninghamella, Fennellomyces, Lichtheimi, Mucor, Mycotypha, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum were isolated from 36 composite soil samples in three semiarid areas in the State of Pernambuco (Triunfo, Cabrobó and Belém de São Francisco), Northeast Brazil, which are characterized by Caatinga vegetation. Triunfo is preserved, whereas Cabroró and Belém de São Francisco are experiencing low and severe desertification processes, respectively. Mucorales were isolated in Petri dishes in triplicate from 5 mg samples of soil placed on the surface of wheat germ agar plus chloramphenicol and Cercobin [Dimethyl 4,49-(103 phenylene) bis (3-thioallophanate)] medium. The plates were left on a bench at room temperature (28 ± 2 ºC) for 72 h of alternating dark and light periods. Absidia cylindrospora presented the highest amount of CFU/g of soil, followed by L. hyalospor, C. phaeospora and C. echinulata var. echinulata. The latter, and R. microsporus var. microsporus, presented the highest frequencies of occurrence. Soils from Triunfo showed higher diversity of Mucorales than the samples from the other areas, although without differing statistically in relation to species richness. The communities of Mucorales from the degraded areas were more similar, while that from the preserved area was quite different. Most of the identified specimens have been commonly isolated from soil in other Brazilian regions, which indicates that they are not endemic of the semiarid. Eleven taxa are registered for the first time in this ecosystem, while F. heterothallicus is reported for the first time in Brazil.
Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris), camel (Camelus bactrianus), horse (Equus caballus), deer (Cervus elaphus), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti), donkey (Equus asinus), llama (Llama glama) and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.
Mucoraleswere isolated from maize flour, corn meal and cooked cornflakes using surface and depth plate methods. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus,Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Absidia cylindrospora showed protease activity.
Mucorales foram isolados da farinha de milho, fubá e flocos de milho pré-cozidos pelos métodos de plaqueamento em superfície e em profundidade. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus,Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis e Absidia cylindrospora exibiram atividade proteásica.
The presence of heavy metals in soil causes impact on microorganisms, vegetation and functional processes in ecosystems. Aiming to prove that Mucorales are affected by copper extraction at the Caraíba mining site, Jaguarari, Bahia, species of Mucorales were isolated from samples collected in the dry and wet seasons. Mucorales were identified and characterized according to their capacity to degrade starch and inulin. Forty six isolates from seven different species of Mucorales were obtained by the serial-dilution and soil-plate methods. Absidia blakesleeana Lendner, A. cylindrospora Hagem, A. hialospora (Saito) Lendn., Cunninghamella elegans Lendner, Rhizopus microsporus V. Thieghen, R. oryzae Went. & Prinsen Geerl. and Syncephalastrum racemosum (Cohn.) Schroet. were isolated in the dry season. Absidia blakesleeana and A. hialospora were isolated only in the wet season. Rhizopus oryzae had the greatest number of isolates (30.43%) followed by A. blakesleeana (26.09%) and C. elegans (21.74%). The genus Absidia had the greatest number of species followed by Rhizopus. The number of isolates obtained from each sample site was significantly different, proving the negative effects of environmental impact on Mucorales abundance in the affected soils. All species were capable of degrading starch. However, C. elegans was the only species that also degraded inulin. Isolates of the same species from different areas showed the same behavior as regards capacity to degrade starch and inulin.
A presença de metais pesados no solo proporciona impacto sobre os microrganismos, vegetação e os processos funcionais do ecossistema. Visando comprovar que Mucorales são afetados pela extração de cobre na Mineradora Caraíba, Jaguarari, BA, espécies de Mucorales foram isoladas de amostras de solo coletadas nas épocas seca e chuvosa. Os Mucorales foram identificados e caracterizados quanto à capacidade de degradar amido e inulina. Utilizando os métodos de diluição e placa de solo, foram obtidos 46 isolados de Mucorales pertencentes a sete diferentes espécies. Absidia blakesleeana Lendner, A. cylindrospora Hagem, A. hialospora (Saito) Lendn., Cunninghamella elegans Lendner, Rhizopus microsporus V. Thieghen, R. oryzae Went. & Prinsen Geerl. e Syncephalastrum racemosum (Cohn.) Schroet. foram isolados na época seca. A. blakesleeana e A. hialospora foram isoladas apenas na época chuvosa. Rhizopus oryzae apresentou maior número de isolados (30,43%), seguido por A. blakesleeana (26,09%) e C. elegans (21,74%). O gênero que apresentou maior número de espécies foi Absidia seguido por Rhizopus. Entre as áreas, houve diferenças significativas no número de isolados de Mucorales, comprovando os efeitos negativos do impacto ambiental na abundância de Mucorales nos solos impactados. Todas as espécies degradaram o amido e apenas C. elegans degradou também inulina. Culturas de mesma espécie isoladas de áreas diferentes apresentaram o mesmo comportamento quanto à degradação de amido e inulina.