A field trial was conducted in order to stud the development of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) early blight caused by Alternaria solani using four different spraying treatments: 1) weekly sprays; 2) application according to the TOMCAST (VSD20); 3) CUFAST; and 4) FAST forecasting system. The fungicide used was Viçosa Mixture, a nutrient amended Bordeaux mixture. Weekly sprays were begun in the second week after planting while the other spray treatmets were made according to each respective forecasting model. Disease severity was assessed weekly with the aid of a diagrammatic scale. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate accuracy-of-fit for the Gompertz, logistic, and monomolecular mathematical models and the disease progress data. The logistic model best described disease progress over time. The apparent infection rate (r), for the logistic model, and AUDPC values, were used to compare treatments. Disease progress rate (r) and AUDPC values for the weekly spraying treatment were the lowest. However, they were not statistically different from the treatments based on the TOMCAST and FAST schedules. Compared with the weekly spray regime to limit early blight severity, the spraying schedules associated with TOMCAST and FAST resulted in 40 to 60% fewer applications.
Objetivando estudar o desenvolvimento da pinta-preta (Alternaria solani) do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum) sob diferentes regimes de pulverização com calda Viçosa, um ensaio foi conduzido, utilizando os seguintes tratamentos: 1) aplicação semanal; 2) aplicação com base nos sistemas de previsão TOMCAST (VSD20); 3) CUFAST; e 4) FAST. As aplicações semanais foram iniciadas na segunda semana após o transplantio enquanto as outras foram feitas com base nos respectivos modelos de previsão. As avaliações da severidade foram feitas semanalmente com o auxílio de uma escala diagramática e os dados foram submetidos ao ajustamento dos modelos de Gompertz, logístico e monomolecular, por meio de análise de regressão linear. O modelo logístico se ajustou melhor aos dados e foi utilizado para determinar as taxas de progresso da doença (r) que, juntamente com a AACPD, foram utilizadas para comparar os tratamentos. O tratamento semanal proporcionou menor taxa de progresso de doença e AACPD, sem, no entanto, diferir significativamente dos efeitos dos tratamentos baseados nos modelos TOMCAST e FAST. Comparados com o regime de pulverização semanal, os regimes baseados nestes dois modelos permitiram uma redução da severidade da pinta-preta com 40 a 60% de redução no número de aplicações de fungicida.
Schistosomiasis, the second major parasitic disease in the world after malaria affects at least 200 million people, 500 million being exposed to the risk of infection. It is widely agreed that a vaccine strategy wich could lead to the induction of effector mechanisms reducing the level of reinfection and ideally parasite fecundity would deeply affect the incidence of pathological manifestations as well as the parasite transmission potentialities. Extensive studies performed in the rat model have allowed the identification of novel effector mechanisms involving IgE antibodies and various inflammatory cell populations (eosinophils, macrophages and platelets) whereas regulation of immune response by blocking antibodies has been evidencial. Recent epidemiological studies have now entirely confirmed in human populations the the role of IgE antibodies in the acquisition of resistance and the association of IgG4 blocking antibodies with increased susceptibility. On the basis of these concepts, several schistosome glutathion S-transferase (Sm 28 GST) appears as a pronising vaccine candidate. Immunization experiments have shown that two complementary goals can be achieved: (a) a partial but significant reduction of the worm population (up to 60//in rats); (b) a significant reduction of parasite fecundity (up in the mice and 85//in cattle) and egg viability (up to 80//). At least two distinct immunological mechanisms account for these two effects. IgE antibodies appear as a major humoral component of acquired resistance whereas IgA antibodies appear as a major humoral factor affecting parasite fecundity. These studies seem to represent a parasite diseases through the identification of potentially protective antigens and of the components of the immune response which vaccination should aim at inducing.
In this review the authors analyze the effector and regulatory mechanisms in the immune response to schistosomiasis. To study these mechanisms two animal models were used, mouse and rat. The mouse totaly permissive host like human, show prominent-T cell control in the acquisition of resistance. But other mechanisms like antibody mediated cytotoxity (ADCC) involving eosinophils and IgG antibodies described in humans, are observed in rats. Also in this animal, it is observed specific IgE antibody high production and blood and tisssue eosinophilia. Using the rat model and schistosomula as target, some ADCC features have emerged: the cellular population involved are bone marrow derived inflammatory cell (mononuclear phagocytes, eosinophils and platelets), interacting with IgE through IgE Fc receptors. Immunization has been attempted using the recombinant protein Sm28/GST. Protection has been observed in rodents with significant decrease of parasite fecundity and egg viability affecting the number, size and volume of liver egg granulomas. The association of praziquantel and immunization with with Sm28/GST increases the resistance to infection and decreases egg viability. The authors suggest the possibility of the stablishment of a future vaccine against Schistosoma mansoni.
Three antigens protective against Schistosoma mansoni have been extensively characterized. The schistosomulum surface antigen GP38 possesses an immunodominant carbohydrate epitope of which the structure has been defined. Protection can be achieved via the transfer of monoclonal antibodies recognizing the epitope or by immunization with anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies. The glycan epitope is shared with the intermediate host, Biomphalaria glabrata as well as being present on other molluscs, including the Keyhole Limpet. A group of molecules at 28 kDa were initially characterized in adult worms and shown to protect rats and mice against a challenge infection. One of these molecules, P28-I, was cloned and expressed in E. coli, yeast and vaccinia virus. The recombinant antigen significantly protected rats, hamsters and baboons against a challenge infection. P28-I is a glutathione-S-transferase and the recombinant antigen produced in yeast exhibits the enzyme activity and has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. A second P28 antigen, P28-II, has also been cloned, fully sequenced and expressed. This recombinant antigen also protects against S. mansoni infection.