Abstract In this paper we present an overview of the abstracts, scientific and social programs, field trips, and achievements in terms of participant number, represented countries, sponsorships, and themes treated during the Sixth International Conference on the Comparative Biology of Monocotyledons that took place in Natal, Brazil, October 7th -12th 2018. Some comments received by the organizers and a few suggestions for organizers of the next meeting, in Costa Rica, are also provided. The conference’s complete abstract book was published and provide additional information.
Resumo Neste artigo nós apresentamos uma visão geral dos resumos, programação científica e social, viagens de campo e informações acerca do número de inscritos, países participantes, patrocínios e temas tratados durante a Sexta Conferência Internacional sobre Biologia Comparada de Monocotiledôneas, realizada em Natal, Brasil, de 7 a 12 de outubro de 2018. Alguns comentários recebidos pelos organizadores e sugestões para os organizadores do próximo Monocots, na Costa Rica, também são fornecidos. Este artigo complementa os dados publicados no livro de resumos, disponível no Repositório Digital da UFRN.
Abstract The pollination syndrome hypothesis usually does not successfully apply to the diversity of floral phenotypes or help predict the pollinators of most plant species. In Bromeliaceae, there is a wide range of floral visitors, making its species ideal to test for a correlation between nectar and floral traits with pollination syndrome. In this study, we analyzed the floral features, nectar production patterns, pollinators and floral visitors of Vriesea gigantea, and discussed its potential adaptive and ecological significance. We study three natural populations from the Atlantic Forest, Southern Brazil. The species presented protogyny and herkogamy, and its anthesis occurred at different periods among different populations. Vriesea gigantea has a relatively constant rate of nectar production during the day that continues overnight but at a reduced rate. Newly opened flowers already have around 80.0 μl of nectar. Although classified as chiropterophilous, based on flower morphology and pollinator observations, our results show that hummingbirds are effective pollinators in the studied populations of V. gigantea.
Resumo A hipótese da síndrome da polinização geralmente não se refere exatamente à diversidade de fenótipos florais ou ajuda a predizer os polinizadores da maioria das espécies de plantas. Em Bromeliaceae, podemos encontrar uma ampla gama de visitantes florais, tornando suas espécies ideais para testar uma correlação entre características florais e do néctar com síndromes de polinização. Neste estudo, analisamos características florais, padrões de produção de néctar, polinizadores e visitantes florais em três populações naturais da Mata Atlântica de Vriesea gigantea, e discutimos seu potencial adaptativo e significado ecológico. A espécie apresentou protoginia e hercogamia, e sua antese ocorreu em diferentes períodos entre as populações. Vriesea gigantea tem uma taxa constante de produção de néctar durante o dia, com uma quantidade reduzida durante a noite. Flores recém-abertas possuem um considerável acúmulo de néctar. Embora a espécie tenha sido classificada como quiropterófila com base na morfologia das flores e observação de polinizadores, nossos resultados mostraram que os beija-flores são os polinizadores prováveis nas populações estudadas de V. gigantea.
ABSTRACT Nine polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for Cryptocarya mandioccana Meisner, a tree from the Atlantic Rainforest with seeds dispersed by large animals. The loci were characterized using 48 individuals from two populations and their genotyping success tested in four tissues: leaves from adults and seedlings, and two diaspore maternal tissues. Maternity analyses were also performed on diaspores and leaves from nine adult trees. The number of alleles per locus ranged from nine to 15 and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.214 to 0.864 and 0.745 to 0.892, respectively. The loci genotyping success did not significantly differ between tissues and varied from 56 to 96%. The microsatellites showed enough polymorphism to assign the nine adult trees to their diaspores. The successful genotyping in all tissues and identification of mother trees show that the microsatellites are suitable for studies such as spatial genetic structure and maternity analyses.
RESUMO Nove locos de microssatélites polimórficos foram isolados e caracterizados para Cryptocarya mandioccana Meisner, uma árvore da Mata Atlântica cujas sementes são dispersas por grandes animais. Os locos foram caracterizados usando 48 indivíduos de duas populações e o sucesso de genotipagem testado em quatro tecidos: folhas de adultos e plântulas, e dois tecidos maternos de diásporos. Análises de maternidade foram também realizadas em diásporos e folhas de nove árvores adultas. O número de alelos por loco variou de nove a 15 e as heterozigosidades observada e esperada de 0,214 a 0,864 e 0,745 a 0,892, respectivamente. O sucesso de genotipagem dos locos não diferiu entre os tecidos e variou de 56 a 96%. Os microssatélites mostraram polimorfismo suficiente para atribuir as nove árvores aos seus diásporos. O sucesso de genotipagem em todos os tecidos e a identificação das árvores mães mostraram que os microssatélites são adequados para estudos como estrutura genética espacial e análise de maternidade.
Bromeliaceae is a morphologically distinctive and ecologically diverse family originating in the New World. Three centers of diversity, 58 genera, and about 3,140 bromeliad species are currently recognized. We compiled all of the studies related to the reproductive biology, genetic diversity, and population structure of the Bromeliaceae, and discuss the evolution and conservation of this family. Bromeliads are preferentially pollinated by vertebrates and show marked variation in breeding systems, from predominant inbreeding to predominant outcrossing, as well as constancy in chromosome number (2n = 2x = 50). Autogamous or mixed mating system bromeliads have a high inbreeding coefficient (F IS), while outcrossing species show low F IS. The degree of differentiation among populations (F ST) of species ranges from 0.043 to 0.961, which can be influenced by pollen and seed dispersal effects, clonal growth, gene flow rates, and connectivity among populations. The evolutionary history of the Bromeliaceae is poorly known, although some studies have indicated that the family arose in the Guayana Shield roughly 100 Mya. We believe that genetic, cytogenetic, and reproductive data will be essential for diagnosing species status and for assisting conservation programs.
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is the most common monogenic hereditary disease in Brazil. Although strokes are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients, the use of transcranial Doppler to identify children at risk is not universally used. OBJECTIVE: To develop Brazilian guidelines for the use of transcranial Doppler in sickle cell disease children and adolescents, so that related health policies can be expanded, and thus contribute to reduce morbidity and mortality. METHODS: The guidelines were formulated in a consensus meeting of experts in transcranial Doppler and sickle cell disease. The issues discussed were previously formulated and scientific articles in databases (MEDLINE, SciELO and Cochrane) were carefully analyzed. The consensus for each question was obtained by a vote of experts on the specific theme. RESULTS: Recommendations were made, including indications for the use of transcranial Doppler according to the sickle cell disease genotype and patients age; the necessary conditions to perform the exam and its periodicity depending on exam results; the criteria for the indication of blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy; the indication of hydroxyurea; and the therapeutic approach in cases of conditional transcranial Doppler. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian guidelines on the use of transcranial doppler in sickle cell disease patients may reduce the risk of strokes, and thus reduce the morbidity and mortality and improve the quality of life of sickle cell disease patients.
In this study we tested the cross-amplification of 33 microsatellite loci previously developed for two closely related Neotropical orchid genera (Epidendrum and Laelia). A set of ten loci were polymorphic across five examined species (20 individuals each) with 2 to 15 alleles per locus. The mean expected and observed heterozygosity (average across species) ranged from 0.34 to 0.82 and from 0.27 to 0.85, respectively. In addition we tested all loci in 35 species representative of the genus Epidendrum. Of these, 26 loci showed successful amplification. Cross-application of these loci represent a potential source of co-dominant markers for evolutionary, ecological and conservation studies in this important orchid genus.