The presence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs surrounded by inflammatory cells were detected within the peritoneal cavity of experimentally infected mice. The histological and ultrastructural analysis revealed the predominantly macrophagic composition of these structures. The presence of epithelioid cells, macrophages in different stages of activation and the architectural pattern of the cells, characterize these structures as extra-tissular true granulomas. Granulomas much similar to those observed in the peritoneal cavity of infected mice were also detected after the intraperitoneal injection of viable eggs in non-infected mice. Collagen fibers were observed in between the inflammatory cells of granulomas obtained 10 weeks after infection and 48 hours after the injection of viable eggs into the peritoneal cavity. In later times of infection or injection the amount of collagen fibers increases resulting in a typical pattern of healed schistosoma egg granulomas. The possible influence of the immune response on the genesis of the granulomatous reaction as well as the influence of the vascularized connective tissue on this process is discussed.