The vancomycin dose for hemodialysis (HD) patients should be adjusted by monitoring drug serum concentrations. However, this procedure is not available in most health services in Brazil, which usually adopts protocols based on published studies. The trials available are controversial, and several have not been conducted with current dialyzers. This study aimed at assessing the suitability of vancomycin serum concentrations in HD patients at a public hospital. Blood samples of HD patients were collected from November 2006 to May 2007, at time intervals of 48, 96, 120, or 168 hours after vancomycin administration. Drug measurement was performed with polarized light immunofluorescence. Approximately 86% of trough vancomycin serum concentrations were below the recommended value, indicating exposure to subtherapeutic doses and a higher risk for selecting resistant microorganisms.