Little is known about the mechanisms causing tremors during immobilisation of rhinoceros and whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions alter their intensity. Therefore, we set out to determine the possible mechanisms that lead to muscle tremors and ascertain whether cardiorespiratory supportive interventions affect tremor intensity. We studied tremors and physiological responses during etorphine-azaperone immobilisation in eight boma-held and 14 free-living white rhinoceroses. Repeated measures analysis of variance and a Friedman test were used to determine differences in variables over time and between interventions. Spearman and Pearson correlations were used to test for associations between variables. Tremor intensity measured objectively by activity loggers correlated well (p < 0.0001; r² = 0.9) with visual observations. Tremor intensity was greatest when animals were severely hypoxaemic and acidaemic. Tremor intensity correlated strongly and negatively with partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) (p = 0.0003; r² = 0.9995) and potential of hydrogen (pH) (p = 0.02, r² = 0.97). It correlated strongly and positively with adrenaline concentrations (p = 0.003; r² = 0.96), and adrenaline correlated strongly and negatively with PaO2 (p = 0.03; r² = 0.95) and pH (p = 0.03; r² = 0.94). Therefore, hypoxaemia and acidaemia were likely associated with the intensity of tremors through their activation of the release of tremorgenic levels of adrenaline. Tremors can be reduced if circulating adrenaline is reduced, and this can be achieved by the administration of butorphanol plus oxygen insufflation. Furthermore, to assist with reducing the risks associated with rhinoceros immobilisation, tremor intensity could be used as a clinical indicator of respiratory and metabolic compromise.
Amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) e soro de 17 pacientes brasileiros com HAM/TSP, seis com esclerose múltipla e seis com epilepsia idiopática (controle não-inflamatório) foram analisadas para a presença de anticorpos para os vírus do sarampo, rubéola, varicela zoster e herpes simples pelo método de ELISA. Todos os casos de HAM/TSP e esclerose múltipla tinham resposta imune intratecal (IgG oligoclonal). Somente 1/17 casos de HAM/TSP apresentavam resposta imune poliespecifica intratecal para sarampo e rubéola. Anticorpos específicos para sarampo e rubeola (resposta MRZ) foram observados em todos os pacientes com esclerose múltipla, mas não nos controles com epilepsia idiopática. A relevância das respostas poliespecifica e monoespecifica é discutida para essas doenças neurológicas crônicas.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of 17 patients with HAM/TSP (HTLV-I associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparesis), six with multiple sclerosis and six with idiopathic epilepsy (non inflammatory control) from Brazil were analysed for the presence of intrathecal synthesis of virus-specific antibodies against measles, rubella, varicella zoster virus and herpes simplex virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All HAM/TSP and multiple sclerosis cases had an intrathecal immune response (oligoclonal IgG). In HAM/TSP, only 1/17 case showed a polyspecific intrathecal immune response against measles and rubella virus. In multiple sclerosis, specific antibodies against measles and rubella (MRZ response) were observed in all patients but not in the control with idiopathic epilepsy. The diagnostic and theoretical relevance of mono- and polyspecific immune responses is discussed for these chronic neurological diseases.