OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility and the cardiorespiratory effects of using positive expiratory airway pressure, a physiotherapeutic tool, in comparison with a T-tube, to wean patients from mechanical ventilation. METHODS/DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, cross-over study. SETTING: Two intensive care units. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: We evaluated forty patients who met weaning criteria and had been mechanically-ventilated for more than 48 hours, mean age 59 years, including 23 males. All patients were submitted to the T-tube and Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure devices, at 7 cm H2O, during a 30-minute period. Cardiorespiratory variables including work of breathing, respiratory rate (rr), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (hr), systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures (SAP, DAP, MAP) were measured in the first and thirtieth minutes. The condition was analyzed as an entire sample set (n=40) and was also divided into subconditions: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=14) and non-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (non- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) (n=26) categories. Comparisons were made using a t-test and Analysis of Variance. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: Our data showed an increase in work of breathing in the first and thirtieth minutes in the EPAP condition (0.86+ 0.43 and 1.02+1.3) as compared with the T-tube condition (0.25+0.26 and 0.26+0.35) (p<0.05), verified by the flow-sensor monitor (values in J/L). No statistical differences were observed when comparing the Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure and T-tube conditions with regard to cardiorespiratory measurements. The same result was observed for both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and non- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subconditions. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that, in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation, the use of a fixed level of Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure caused an increase in work of breathing that was not accompanied by any other significant cardiorespiratory changes. Therefore, we have to be cautious when using Expiratory Positive Airway Pressure as a physiotherapeutic tool during weaning from mechanical ventilation.
OBJETIVO: Analisar variáveis cardiorrespiratórias durante o desmame com as técnicas tubo T e pressão de suporte e compará-las em grupos de cardiopatas e não cardiopatas. MÉTODOS: Avaliados 20 pacientes (57±15 anos) quanto à: oxigenação, eliminação de CO2, freqüência respiratória e cardíaca, volume corrente e volume minuto, freqüência cardíaca, pressão arterial e alterações eletrocardiográficas. Os dados foram registrados, em ambas as técnicas, aos zero, 15 e 30 min, com intervalo de 30 min. Os pacientes foram divididos em cardiopatas (n=11) e não cardiopatas (n=9) e comparados. RESULTADOS: Comparando-se pressão de suporte com tubo T demonstraram-se: valores de oxigenação e eliminação de CO2 significativamente mais elevados e freqüência respiratória reduzidos. Não houve diferença quanto à pressão arterial e freqüência cardíaca. Comparando-se cardiopatas versus não cardiopatas, foram verificadas, respectivamente, alterações de segmento ST em 7 (64%) versus 2 (22%), arritmias em 3 (27%) versus 1 (11%) e menor ocorrência de taquicardia. CONCLUSÃO: Na comparação de pressão de suporte com tubo T uma melhor resposta foi observada nas medidas de parâmetros respiratórios e de oxigenação com o uso de pressão de suporte, não havendo diferenças significativas nas medidas de parâmetros cardiovasculares. Houve menor ocorrência de taquicardia, maior ocorrência de alterações de segmento ST e tendência à maior ocorrência de arritmias nos cardiopatas, em ambos os modos de desmame.
OBJECTIVE: To assess cardiorespiratory variables during weaning from mechanical ventilation by using the T-tube and pressure support techniques, and to compare them in groups of patients with and without heart disease. METHODS: To assess the following parameters of 20 patients (57±15 years) undergoing weaning from mechanical ventilation: oxygenation; CO2 elimination; respiratory and heart rates; tidal and minute volumes; blood pressure; and electrocardiographic alterations. Data were recorded by using both techniques at the following times: zero, 15, and 30 minutes, and after a 30-minute interval. The patients were divided into 2 groups, with heart disease (n=11) and without heart disease (n=9), and then compared. RESULTS: The pressure support ventilation showed significantly more elevated oxygenation and CO2 elimination values, and reduced respiratory rate as compared with those of the T-tube ventilation. No difference was found in regard to blood pressure and heart rate. More patients with heart disease had alterations in the ST segment [7 (64%) patients versus 2 (22%)] and arrhythmias [3 (27%) versus 1 (11%)], as compared with patients without heart disease. A lower frequency of tachycardia was observed in those with heart disease. CONCLUSION: When comparing pressure support ventilation with T-tube ventilation, a better response was observed in the measurements of the respiratory and oxygenation parameters when using pressure support ventilation. No significant difference was observed in the measurements of cardiovascular parameters. In both weaning techniques, patients with heart disease had tachycardia less frequently, more alterations in the ST segment, and a greater tendency towards the occurrence of arrhythmias.
Mielopatia associada ao HTLV-I/paraparesia espástica tropical (TSP/HAM) tem sido descrita de forma crescente em praticamente todas as regiões do Brasil. Relatam-se cinco casos confirmados e documentados de pacientes com TSP/HAM no Rio Grande do Sul, observando-se em todos paraparesia espástica, bexiga neurogênica e distúrbios sensitivos superficiais e/ou profundos de graus variáveis. Em um caso denotou-se padrão em surto e remissão, caracterizado por ataxia cerebelar (sugestivo de esclerose múltipla). Os cinco pacientes foram submetidos a investigação clínica, laboratorial, urodinâmica, neurofisiológicae de neuroimagem. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi apresentar a região sul do Brasil como uma área de significativa endemicidade de infecção por HTLV-I/II (0,42% de prevalência entre doadores de sangue), bem como evidenciar a existência de pacientes com doença neurológica associada a este retrovirus.
HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP/HAM) have been increasingly described in practically all regions of Brazil. Five confirmed and documented cases of patients with TSP/HAM in Rio Grande do Sul are reported; in all of them spastic paraparesis, neurogenic bladder and superficial and/or profound sensitive disorders were observed in variable degrees. One patient presented a relapsing-remitting course with a cerebellar ataxia (multiple sclerosis-like pattern). Everyone was submitted to clinical, serological, urodynamic, neurophysiologic and neuroradiologic investigation. The aim of this study was to present the southern region of Brazil as an area with significant endemicity for HTLV-I/II infection (prevalence of 0.42% between blood donors), and also to show the existence of patients with neurologic disease associated with this retrovirus.