Abstract We present a taxonomic treatment for Malpighiaceae from the Lenheiro Mountain Range, São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brazil, where a total of 23 species and nine genera were recorded. Identification keys for all genera and species are presented, along with morphological descriptions, photo plates, and comments on distribution, ecology and taxonomy of the studied species.
Resumo Apresentamos o tratamento taxonômico para Malpighiaceae na Serra do Lenheiro, São João del-Rei, Minas Gerais, Brasil, onde um total de 23 espécies e nove gêneros foram registrados. Chaves de identificação para os gêneros e espécies são apresentadas, além de descrições morfológicas, pranchas fotográficas e comentários sobre distribuição, ecologia e taxonomia das espécies estudadas.
ABSTRACT The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of adding calcium anacardate (ACa) as a source of anacardic acid to the diet of broiler chickens on the growth, quality and bone composition of the femur and tibia of the birds. A total of 840 male chicks, one day old, were kept in a completely randomised experimental design, with six treatments and seven replications of 20 birds. The following treatments were applied: a diet without the addition of growth promoter (GP), a diet with added GP and other diets with no GP and the addition of ACa at levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1%. The variables under analysis were the weight, length, diameter, Seedor index, and the resistance and deformity of the left femur and tibia of the birds. For bone composition, the dry matter and mineral matter of the right femur and tibia of the chickens were analysed. There were no significant differences between treatments in the growth, quality or composition of the femur or tibia of the birds, showing that the use of calcium anacardate as a source of anacardic acid does not affect bone deposition in broiler chickens up to 42 days of age.
RESUMO Com essa pesquisa, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de anacardato de cálcio (ACa) como fonte de ácido anacárdico na alimentação de frangos de corte sobre o crescimento, qualidade e composição óssea do fêmur e da tíbia das aves. Foram alojados 840 pintos machos de um dia de idade em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e sete repetições de 20 aves. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: ração sem adição de promotor de crescimento (PC), ração com PC e, demais, rações sem PC e adição de (ACa) nos níveis de 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1%. As variáveis analisadas foram: peso, comprimento, diâmetro, índice de Seedor, resistência e deformidade do fêmur e da tíbia esquerda das aves. Para composição óssea foram analisadas a matéria seca e a matéria mineral do fêmur e da tíbia direita dos frangos. Não houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos no crescimento, qualidade e composição dos ossos do fêmur e da tíbia das aves, indicando que o uso do anacardato de cálcio, como fonte de ácido anacárdico, não afeta a deposição óssea em frangos de corte até 42 dias de idade.
BACKGROUND Serological evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) infection has been reported in different regions of Brazil from equine and human hosts but the virus had never been isolated in the country. OBJECTIVES We sought to identify the viral etiology of equine encephalitis in Espírito Santo state. METHODS We performed viral culture in C6/36 cells, molecular detection of WNV genome, histopathology and immunohistochemistry from horse cerebral tissue. We also carried out sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and molecular clock. FINDINGS Histopathologic analysis from horse cerebral tissue showed injury related to encephalitis and WNV infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The virus was detected by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) from brain tissue and subsequently isolated in C6/36 cells. WNV full-length genome was sequenced showing the isolated strain belongs to lineage 1a. The molecular clock indicated that Brazilian WNV strain share the same common ancestor that were circulating in US during 2002-2005. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Here we report the first isolation of WNV in Brazil from a horse with neurologic disease, which was clustered into lineage 1a with others US WNV strains isolated in beginning of 2000’s decade.
Abstract Amazon parrots are long-lived birds with highly developed cognitive skills, including vocal learning. Several parrot mitogenomes have been sequenced, but important aspects of their organization and evolution are not fully understood or have limited experimental support. The main aim of the present study was to describe the mitogenome of the blue-fronted Amazon, Amazona aestiva, and compare it to other mitogenomes from the genus Amazona and the order Psittaciformes. We observed that mitogenomes are highly conserved among Amazon parrots, and a detailed analysis of their duplicated control regions revealed conserved blocks. Population level analyses indicated that the specimen analyzed here seems to be close to A. aestiva individuals from Bahia state. Evolutionary relationships of 41 Psittaciformes species and three outgroups were inferred by BEAST. All relationships were retrieved with high support.
In this cross-sectional study, mycobacteria specimens from 189 tuberculosis (TB) patients living in an urban area in Brazil were characterised from 2008-2010 using phenotypic and molecular speciation methods (pncA gene and oxyR pseudogene analysis). Of these samples, 174 isolates simultaneously grew on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and Stonebrink (SB)-containing media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, whereas 12 had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis based on the DNA analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue samples (paraffin blocks). One patient produced two sputum isolates, the first of which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, and the second of which only grew on SB media and presented phenotypic profiles of Mycobacterium bovis. One patient provided a bronchial lavage isolate, which simultaneously grew on LJ and SB media and presented phenotypic and molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis, but had molecular profiles of M. bovis from paraffin block DNA analysis, and one sample had molecular profiles of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis identified from two distinct paraffin blocks. Moreover, we found a low prevalence (1.6%) of M. bovis among these isolates, which suggests that local health service procedures likely underestimate its real frequency and that it deserves more attention from public health officials.
OBJECTIVE: Assess the prevalence of anemia and the nutritional status of children with 7-74 months old, enrolled in day care centers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled children of 25 day care centers of the eastern district of Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Anthropometric parameters were evaluated and hemoglobin count was done by a portable hemoglobinometer. The cutoff level for anemia was 11.0g/dL for children less than 60 months, and 11.5g/dL for those older than 5 years old. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indexes: weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height and classified in 3 groups: below -2 Z score (malnutrition/height deficit), -2 to -1 Z score (nutritional risk for malnutrition/height deficit) and above or equal to -1 Z score. Statistical analysis included: chi-square, chi-square with linear trend, analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey test, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: 402 children, with a median age of 46.3 months, were assessed. The overall anemia prevalence was 28.8%. The rate of anemia in children <24 months (70.4%) was twice that observed in older children. The prevalence of malnutrition was 5,0 and 5.5%, as defined by weight-for-height and weight-for-age indexes, respectively. The prevalence of height deficit was 4.2%. Malnutrition was associated to age and height deficit in children <5 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia in children enrolled in day care centers in Belo Horizonte is a serious public health problem, especially in those younger than 24 months. Nutritional deficits were beyond the expected values.
OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional e a prevalência de anemia em crianças de sete a 74 meses, que freqüentam creches. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal em 25 creches da regional leste de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Realizaram-se avaliação antropométrica e dosagem de hemoglobina por hemoglobinômetro portátil. Considerou-se anemia se hemoglobina <11,0g/dL para crianças menores que 60 meses e <11,5g/dL, para maiores de 5 anos. Na avaliação do estado nutricional, utilizaram-se os índices peso/idade, estatura/idade e peso/estatura, sendo categorizados em três intervalos: abaixo de -2 escores Z (desnutrição/baixa estatura), de -2 a -1 escore Z (risco para desnutrição/baixa estatura) e maior ou igual a -1 escore Z. A análise estatística incluiu: qui-quadrado, qui-quadrado de tendência linear e análise de variância (ANOVA) seguida pelo teste de Tukey, sendo significante p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 402 crianças, com mediana de idade de 46,3 meses. A prevalência de anemia foi 28,8%, observando-se o dobro da prevalência nas crianças com idade inferior a 24 meses (70,4%), comparada às de faixa etária maior. A prevalência de desnutrição correspondeu a 5,0 e 5,5% da população para os índices peso/estatura e peso/idade, respectivamente. A prevalência de baixa estatura foi 4,2%. Em crianças menores de 5 anos, a anemia associou-se à idade e ao deficit estatural. CONCLUSÕES: A anemia em crianças matriculadas nas creches da regional leste de Belo Horizonte constitui importante problema de saúde pública, acometendo, principalmente, os menores de 24 meses. Os deficits nutricionais estiveram acima dos valores esperados.