Blue egg coloring is attributed to biliverdin derived from the oxidative degradation of heme through catalysis by heme oxygenase (HO). The pigment is secreted into the eggshell by the shell gland. There is uncertainty as to whether the pigment is synthesized in the shell gland or in other tissues. To investigate the site of pigment biosynthesis, the expression of heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 (HMOX1), a gene encoding HO, and HO activity in liver and spleen were compared between blue-shelled chickens (n=12) and brown-shelled chickens (n=12). There were no significant differences in HMOX1 expression and HO activity in these tissues between the two groups. Since the liver and spleen, two important sites outside the shell gland where heme is degraded into biliverdin, CO and Fe2+, did not differ in HO expression and activity we conclude that the pigment is most likely synthesized in the shell gland.