Abstract: Insects are the most diverse group of animals. They can be infected by an extraordinary diversity of viruses. Among them, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can be transmitted to humans. High-throughput sequencing of small RNAs from insects provides insight into their virome, which may help understand the dynamics of vector borne infectious diseases. Furthermore, investigating the mechanisms that restrict viral infections in insects points to genetic innovations that may inspire novel antiviral strategies.