Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in women and the accuracy of currently available risk scores is questionable. Objective To reclassify the risk estimated by the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in asymptomatic middle-aged women by incorporating family history, exercise testing variables, and subclinical atherosclerosis markers. Methods This cross-sectional study included 509 women (age range, 46-65 years) without cardiovascular symptoms. Those at low or intermediate risk by the FRS were reclassified to a higher level considering premature family history of acute myocardial infarction and/or sudden death; four variables from exercise testing; and two variables related to subclinical atherosclerosis markers. The homogeneity of these variables according to the FRS was verified by Pearson chi-square test (p<0.05). Results According to the FRS, 80.2%, 6.2%, and 13.6% of the women were classified as low (<5%), intermediate (5-10%), and high (>10%) risks, respectively. The intermediate-risk stratum showed the highest increase (from 6.2% to 33.3%) with addition of family history; followed by addition of chronotropic index <80% (to 24.2%); functional capacity <85% (22.2%), coronary calcium score >0 (20.6%); decreased one-minute heart rate recovery ≤12 bpm (15.2%); carotid intima-media thickness >1 mm and/or carotid plaque (13.8%) and ST-segment depression (9.0%). The high-risk stratum increased to 14.4% with the addition of reduced heart rate recovery and to 17.1% with the coronary calcium score. Conclusion Incorporation of premature family history of cardiovascular events, exercise testing abnormal parameters, and subclinical atherosclerosis markers into the FRS led to risk reclassification in 3.0-29.7% of asymptomatic middle-aged women, mainly by an increase from low to intermediate risk.
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of exercise testing alterations in middle-aged women without symptoms of heart disease and to verify the associations of functional capacity and heart rate behavior during and after exercise with cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 asymptomatic women aged between 46 and 65 years who underwent clinical evaluations and exercise testing (Bruce protocol). The heart rate behavior was evaluated by the maximal predicted heart rate achieved, chronotropic index and recovery heart rate. RESULTS: The mean age was 56.4±4.8 years, and 13.4% of the patients had a Framingham risk score above 10%. In the exercise treadmill testing, 58.0% presented one or more of the following alterations (listed in order of ascending prevalence): symptoms (angina, dyspnea, and dizziness), ST-segment depression, arrhythmia, reduction in recovery heart rate of ≤12 bpm at 1 minute, altered maximal predicted heart rate achieved, abnormal blood pressure, functional capacity deficiency, and altered chronotropic index. In the multivariate analysis, the following associations (odds ratio) were observed for these alterations: chronotropic index was associated with obesity (2.08) and smoking (4.47); maximal predicted heart rate achieved was associated with smoking (6.45); reduction in the recovery heart rate at 1 minute was associated with age (1.09) and obesity (2.78); functional capacity was associated with age (0.92), an overweight status (2.29) and obesity (6.51). CONCLUSIONS: More than half of middle-aged women without cardiovascular symptoms present alterations in one or more exercise testing parameters. Alterations in the functional capacity or heart rate behavior, as verified by exercise testing, are associated with age, smoking, an overweight status and obesity.
Resumo Fundamento: A mortalidade por doença cardiovascular entre as mulheres permanece elevada. Estudos observacionais são controversos sobre a participação dos antecedentes de distúrbio hipertensivo gestacional no risco cardiovascular. Objetivo: Verificar a associação entre aterosclerose de carótidas em mulheres no climatério que tiveram hipertensão na gestação. Métodos: Estudo de caso-controle, sendo os casos compostos por mulheres com aterosclerose de carótida, definida como espessura íntima-média carotídea > 1 mm e/ou presença de placas de carótidas; os controles não apresentavam estas alterações. Adotou-se nível de significância de 95%. Resultados: Foram avaliadas 504 mulheres sem doença cardiovascular prévia, sendo 126 casos e 378 controles. Eram hipertensas 67% delas; 76% eram dislipidêmicas; e 16%, diabéticas. Cerca de 10% referiram antecedentes de hipertensão na gestação. As mulheres com aterosclerose de carótidas apresentaram valores maiores dos níveis de pressão arterial sistólica (134,18 mmHg vs. 128,59 mmHg; p = 0,008) e de LDL-colesterol (156,52 mg% vs. 139,97 mg%; p = 0,0005). Não foi encontrada diferença estatística em relação à presença de aterosclerose de carótidas e ao antecedente de hipertensão na gestação (OR 1,672; IC 95% 0,893-3,131). Conclusão: O antecedente de hipertensão na gestação não foi associado à aterosclerose subclínica de carótidas em mulheres na pré e pós-menopausa. No entanto, verificou-se a associação entre a aterosclerose de carótida e os fatores de risco clássicos, como pressão arterial sistólica elevada e altos níveis de LDL-colesterol.
Abstract Background: Cardiovascular disease mortality among women remains high. Observational studies are controversial about the participation of a history of gestational hypertensive disorder in cardiovascular risk. Objective: To verify the association between carotid atherosclerosis in menopausal women who had pregnancy-induced hypertension. Methods: Case-control study, with cases consisting of women with carotid atherosclerosis, defined as carotid intima-media thickness > 1 mm and/or presence of carotid plaques; the controls did not have these alterations. The significance level was set at 95%. Results: A total of 504 women without previous cardiovascular disease were assessed, 126 cases and 378 controls. Of the total, 67% were hypertensive; 76% were dyslipidemic; and 16% were diabetic. Approximately 10% reported a history of hypertension during pregnancy. Women with carotid atherosclerosis had higher values of systolic blood pressure (134.18 mmHg vs. 128.59 mmHg, p = 0.008) and LDL-cholesterol (156.52 mg% vs. 139.97 mg%; p = 0.0005). No statistical difference was found regarding the presence of carotid atherosclerosis and history of hypertension during pregnancy (OR 1.672, 95% CI: 0.883-3.131). Conclusion: The history of hypertension during pregnancy was not associated with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in menopausal women. However, an association was observed between carotid atherosclerosis and classic risk factors, such as elevated systolic blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol levels.
OBJECTIVES: Examine changes in the quality of sexual life of men with morbid obesity offered by a reduction in body weight following Fobi-Capella gastroplasty. METHOD: A quantitative, prospective, longitudinal, cross-sectional study was carried out on 21 men with morbid obesity between March 2005 and March 2007. Inclusion criteria were: aged 20 to 50 years, body mass index (BMI) = 40 kg/m² and failure in attempts of clinical treatment for obesity in the previous two years. Data collection from clinical records and the administering of a specific questionnaire on issues relating to sexual function was performed prior to and six months following surgery. Scores were analyzed with the help of the Epi-Info 6 program, using the Student's t-test for paired samples. RESULTS: The total score increased at the six-month post operative in 76.19%; remained unaltered in 14.29%; and decreased in 9.52%. Scores in areas related to erectile function and sexual relations increased in 71.42%; sexual desire increased in 52.38%; and orgasms increased in 28.57%. General sexual satisfaction increased in 57.14%. The average total score and scores on the domains of the questionnaire prior to and six months following surgery revealed statistically significant differences, except those relating to sexual desire and orgasm. CONCLUSION: The quality of sexual life in morbid obese men improves following Fobi-Capella surgery. Favorable changes occurred in sexual function after these individuals underwent this type of bariatric surgery.
OBJETIVO: Analisar as modificações na qualidade de vida sexual de obesos, proporcionadas pela redução do peso corpóreo, após a realização da gastroplastia à Fobi-Capella. MÉTODOS: Estudo quantitativo, prospectivo e longitudinal com cortes transversais, realizado entre março de 2005 e março de 2007, com 21 obesos mórbidos. Critérios de inclusão: idade de 20 a 50 anos, índice de massa corpórea (IMC) =40 Kg/m² e insucesso em tentativas de tratamento clínico para obesidade nos últimos dois anos. Coleta de dados clínicos em prontuários e aplicação de questionário específico com questões relativas à função sexual, realizadas antes e seis meses após a cirurgia. Os escores obtidos foram analisados com o auxilio do programa Epi-Info6, empregando o teste T de student para amostras pareadas. RESULTADOS: O valor total aumentou seis meses após a cirurgia em 76,19%, permaneceu inalterado em 14,29% e diminuiu em 9,52%. Os domínios referentes a função erétil e a relação sexual aumentaram em 71,42%, ao desejo sexual em 52,38% e ao orgasmo em 28,57%. A satisfação sexual aumentou em 57,14%. As médias do valor total e dos seus domínios antes e seis meses após a cirurgia, exceto aquelas referentes ao orgasmo e ao desejo sexual, apresentam diferenças estatisticamente significativas. CONCLUSÃO: A qualidade de vida sexual em homens obesos melhora após a realização da gastroplastia à Fobi-Capella. Evidenciaram-se modificações favoráveis na função sexual desses indivíduos após a perda de peso.