RESUMO OBJETIVO: Os resultados gestacionais e neonatais de mulheres com cervicodilatação precoce submetidas à cerclagem de emergência foram avaliados e comparados com mulheres tratadas com manejo expectante com repouso no leito. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de gestantes admitidas entre 2001 e 2017 com diagnóstico de cervicodilatação precoce e/ou membranas protrusas. Foram incluídas pacientes com gestação única de feto sem malformações, entre 16 semanas e 25 semanas e 6 dias, com dilatação cervical de 1 a 3 cm; as pacientes que tiveram parto ou aborto dentro de 2 dias após admissão foram excluídas. RESULTADOS: O estudo envolveu 30 pacientes: 19 no grupo cerclagem e 11 no grupo repouso. Houve diferença significativa, com o grupo cerclagem apresentando melhores resultados em relação à idade gestacional no parto (28,7 vs. 23,3 semanas; p=0,031) e à latência entre a admissão hospitalar e o parto (48,6 vs. 16 dias; p=0,016). A taxa de mortalidade fetal foi menor no grupo cerclagem (5,3% vs. 54,5%, p=0,004). Considerando a idade gestacional no nascimento dos recém-nascidos vivos, não houve diferença entre os grupos cerclagem e expectante (29,13 vs. 27,4 semanas; p=0,857). CONCLUSÕES: A cerclagem de emergência foi associada a maior período de latência com impacto significativo na idade gestacional do parto e à redução da taxa de mortalidade fetal.
SUMMARY BACKGROUND: The gestational and neonatal outcomes of women with early cervical dilatation undergoing emergency cerclage were evaluated and compared with women treated with expectant management and bed rest. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of pregnant women admitted between 2001 and 2017 with a diagnosis of early cervical dilatation and/or bulging membranes. Patients with a singleton pregnancy of a fetus without malformations, between 16 and 25 weeks and 6 days, with cervical dilatation of 1 to 3 cm were included; patients who delivered or miscarried within 2 days after admission were excluded. RESULTS: The study enrolled 30 patients: 19 in the cerclage group and 11 in the rest group. There was a significant difference, with the cerclage group showing better results concerning gestational age at delivery (28.7 vs. 23.3 weeks; p=0.031) and latency between hospital admission and delivery (48.6 vs. 16 days; p=0.016). The fetal death rate was lower in the cerclage group (5.3% vs. 54.5%, p=0.004). Considering gestational age at delivery of live newborns, no difference was observed between the cerclage and rest groups (29.13 vs. 27.4 weeks; p=0.857). CONCLUSIONS: Emergency cerclage was associated with longer latency, a significant impact on gestational age at delivery and reduction in the fetal death rate.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the expression of decidual natural killer (dNK) cells and their cytokines in twin pregnancies with preeclampsia. METHODS: This was a prospective case-control study. The inclusion criteria were diamniotic (monochorionic or dichorionic) twin pregnancies in the third trimester with negative serological results for infectious diseases; absence of major fetal abnormalities or twin-twin transfusion syndrome; and no history of administration of corticosteroids in this pregnancy. The control group (CG) included uncomplicated twin pregnancies, and the preeclampsia group (PEG) included twin gestations with clinical and laboratory confirmation of the disease according to well-established criteria. Samples of the decidua were obtained and analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of dNK cells and interleukins (ILs) 10, 12 and 15. In addition, maternal serum samples were collected to determine the levels of these interleukins. RESULTS: Thirty twin pregnancies were selected: 20 in the control group (CG) and 10 in the preeclampsia group (PEG). The PEG showed strong placental immunostaining for IL-15 (p=0.001) and high maternal serum levels of IL-10 (22.7 vs. 11.9 pg/mL, p=0.024) and IL-15 (15.9 vs. 7.4 pg/mL, p=0.024). CONCLUSION: A higher maternal serum concentration of both pro- and anti-inflammatory factors was observed in the twin pregnancies in the PEG. However, no difference in placental expression of IL-10 was found between the groups. These findings may suggest that maternal attempts to balance these interleukins were not sufficient to cause a placental response, and this failure may contribute to the development of preeclampsia.
OBJECTIVE: To perform a descriptive analysis of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) cases attended in a tertiary hospital. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of medical records and laboratory tests of patients admitted to a Brazilian tertiary hospital between 2006 and 2011, with a confirmed diagnosis of PPROM and gestational age (GA) at delivery <37 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 299 pregnant women were included in the study. Nine patients evolved to abortion, and 290 pregnant women remained for the final analysis. There was initial diagnostic doubt in 17.6% of the cases. The oligohydramnios rate [amniotic fluid index (AFI) <5] was 27.9% on admission. Chorioamnionitis was initially diagnosed in 10.8% of the patients and was retrospectively confirmed in 22.9% of the samples. The latency period had a mean of 9.1 days. The main reasons for interruption were premature labor (55.2%), GA ≥36 weeks (27.2%), and fetal distress (6.9%). The delivery method was cesarean section in 55% of cases. The mean birth weight was 2,124 grams, and 67% of the neonates had a low birth weight (<2500 g). The GA at delivery averaged 33.5 weeks. The stillbirth rate was 5.3%, and the early neonatal mortality rate was 5.6%. There were complications at delivery in 18% of mothers. CONCLUSION: In one of the few Brazilian reports on the epidemiological profile of PPROM, with GA until 37 weeks and intercurrences generally excluded from assessments (such as twinning and fetal malformations), there is a favorable evolution, with an acceptable rate of complications.
RESUMO OBJETIVOS: Determinar quais características ultrassonográficas obtidas por meio da ultrassonografia transvaginal bidimensional (USG TV 2D) e tridimensional (USG TV 3D) associam-se ao parto prematuro em gestantes submetidas à cerclagem profilática e terapêutica. MÉTODOS: Sessenta e seis gestantes com feto único submetidas à cerclagem profilática ou terapêutica e acompanhadas no ambulatório de Aborto Habitual da Clínica Obstétrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da USP, entre 10 de juho de 2012 e 30 de outubro de 2015, foram avaliadas longitudinalmente, por meio das US TV 2D e US TV 3D associadas ao power Doppler para avaliação do VI, FI e VFI, nos três trimestres da gestação. Os resultados foram avaliados em relação ao parto em idade gestacional (IG) menor que 34 semanas e maior ou igual a 34 semanas, assim como em relação à idade do parto como variável contínua. RESULTADOS: O comprimento do colo uterino (CC) e a distância do ponto de cerclagem ao orifício interno do colo uterino (POI) diminuíram de forma significativa entre o segundo e terceiro trimestres da gestação. O CC, o POI e o afunilamento cervical no terceiro trimestre da gestação tiveram relação com a ocorrência de parto em IG<34 semanas. Na análise de regressão de COX, em que a variável de interesse foi o tempo até o parto, o volume do colo uterino no segundo trimestre e o FI e VFI no terceiro trimestre foram significativos. CONCLUSÃO: Foi possível identificar parâmetros ultrassonográficos do colo uterino bi e tridimensionais que se correlacionam com a idade gestacional do parto.
SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Cervical cerclage is the standard treatment for cervical incompetence (CI); however, there is still a high risk of preterm birth for women who undergo this treatment. The aim of this study was to longitudinally evaluate findings on two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasonography (2DTVUS) and three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasonography (3DTVUS) that could be related to gestational age at birth. METHODS: A total of 68 pregnant women who were treated with cerclage were evaluated by 2DTVUS and 3DTVUS in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Log-rank tests and Cox regression analyses were used to identify significant findings related to gestational age at delivery. RESULTS: A cervical length lower than 281 mm (p= 0.0083), a proximal cervical length lower than 10 mm (p= 0.0151), a cervical volume lower than 18.17 cm3 (p= 0.0152), a vascularization index (VI) under 2.153 (p= 0.0044), and a vascularization-flow index (VFI) under 0.961 (p= 0.0059) in the second trimester were all related to earlier delivery. In the third trimester, a cervical length lower than 20.4 mm (p= 0.0009), a VI over 0.54 (p= 0.0327) and a VFI over 2.275 (p= 0.0479) were all related to earlier delivery. Cervical funnelling in the second and third trimesters and proximal cervical length in the third trimester were not related to gestational age at birth. The COX regression analyses showed that cervical volume in the second trimester; FI and VFI in the third trimester were significantly associated with gestational age at birth. CONCLUSION: In women treated with history-indicated cerclage or ultrasound-indicated cerclage, 2nd trimester cervical volume and 3rd trimester FI and VFI are independent significant sonographic findings associated with time to delivery.
OBJECTIVES: Hospitalized patients with cancer are at high risk of developing venous thromboembolism, and the risk increases with pregnancy. The aim of this study was to apply a thromboprophylaxis protocol with a venous thromboembolism risk score for hospitalized pregnant women with cancer and to evaluate the effects on maternal morbidity and mortality. METHODS: A longitudinal and prospective study was conducted from December 2014 to July 2016. The venous thromboembolism risk score was modified from the guidelines of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Patients were classified as low (score <3) or high risk (score ≥3). The high-risk group received thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin, unless the patient had a contraindication for anticoagulation. One patient could have undergone more than one evaluation. RESULTS: Fifty-two ratings were descriptively analyzed: 34 (65.4%) were classified as high risk, and 28/34 (82.3%) received low-molecular-weight heparin, 1 received unfractionated heparin, and 5 did not receive intervention. Most patients (23/52; 44.2%) had breast cancer. The main risk factors for venous thromboembolism in the high-risk group were chemotherapy (within 6 months; 22/34; 64.7%). No patient exhibited venous thromboembolism, adverse effects of anticoagulation or death up to three months after hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Most pregnant women with cancer had a high risk for venous thromboembolism at the time of hospitalization. Breast cancer was the most prevalent cancer, and recent chemotherapy was the main risk factor for anticoagulation. The application of a thromboprophylaxis protocol and determination of a venous thromboembolism risk score for these patients was useful for the prevention of maternal morbidity and mortality due to venous thromboembolism.
OBJECTIVES: Quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) is a rapid and reliable method for screening aneuploidies, but in Brazil, it is not used in public services. We investigated the accuracy of QF-PCR for the prenatal recognition of common aneuploidies and compared these results with cytogenetic results in our laboratory. METHOD: A ChromoQuant QF-PCR kit containing 24 primer pairs targeting loci on chromosomes 21, 13, 18, X and Y was employed to identify aneuploidies of the referred chromosomes. RESULTS: A total of 162 amniotic fluid samples analyzed using multiplex QF-PCR were compared with karyotyping analysis. The QF-PCR results were consistent with the results of cytogenetic analysis in 95.4% of all samples. CONCLUSION: QF-PCR was demonstrated to be efficient and reliable for prenatal aneuploidy screening. This study suggests that QF-PCR can be used as a rapid diagnostic method. However, rearrangements and some mosaic samples cannot be detected with this test; thus, those exceptions must undergo cytogenetic analysis.
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the influence of lying in prone position on a specially designed stretcher on the maternal-fetal hemodynamic parameters and comfort of pregnant women. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial with 33 pregnant women divided into 2 groups: pregnant group sequence 1 and pregnant group sequence 2. The order of positions used in sequence 1 was Fowler’s position, prone position, supine position, left lateral, Fowler’s position 2, supine position 2, prone position 2 and left lateral 2. The order of positions used in sequence 2 was Fowler’s position, prone position, left lateral, supine position, Fowler’s position 2, left lateral 2, prone position 2 and supine position 2. Each woman remained in each position for 6 minutes. For the statistical analyses, we used Wilcoxon’s test for 2 paired samples when comparing the prone position with the other positions. The variables are presented in graphs showing the means and 95% confidence intervals. Trial Registration: Clinical Trial No. ISRCTN41359519 RESULTS: All the parameters were within the standards of normality. There were no differences between positions in terms of maternal heart rate, diastolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation and fetal heart rate. However, there were significant decreases in respiratory rate and systolic blood pressure in prone position 2 compared with left lateral 2. There was an increase in oxygen saturation in prone position compared with Fowler’s position and supine position 2 in both sequences. All the women reported feeling comfortable in the prone position. CONCLUSIONS: The prone position was considered safe and comfortable and could be advantageous for improving oxygen saturation and reducing the systolic blood pressure and respiratory rate.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to compare the placental weight and birth weight/placental weight ratio for intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of placentas from twin pregnancies. Placental weight and the birth weight/placental weight ratio were compared in intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The association between cord insertion type and placental lesions in intrauterine growth-restricted and non-intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins was also investigated. RESULTS: A total of 105 monochorionic (intrauterine growth restriction=40; non-intrauterine growth restriction=65) and 219 dichorionic (intrauterine growth restriction=57; non-intrauterine growth restriction=162) placentas were analyzed. A significantly lower placental weight was observed in intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic (p=0.022) and dichorionic (p<0.001) twins compared to non-intrauterine growth-restricted twins. There was no difference in the birth weight/placental weight ratio between the intrauterine growth restriction and non-intrauterine growth restriction groups for either monochorionic (p=0.36) or dichorionic (p=0.68) twins. Placental weight and the birth weight/placental weight ratio were not associated with cord insertion type or with placental lesions. CONCLUSION: Low placental weight, and consequently reduced functional mass, appears to be involved in fetal growth restriction in monochorionic and dichorionic twins. The mechanism by which low placental weight influences the birth weight/placental weight ratio in intrauterine growth-restricted monochorionic and dichorionic twins needs to be determined in larger prospective studies.
RESUMO Introdução o sucesso do desenvolvimento da quimioterapia no tratamento da neoplasia trofoblástica proporcionou a possibilidade de conservação da fertilidade das pacientes, tornando o futuro reprodutivo uma nova preocupação após a remissão da doença Objetivo analisar os estudos existentes na literatura que descrevem o futuro reprodutivo de pacientes com neoplasia trofoblástica tratadas com quimioterapia. Método revisão sistemática que buscou artigos nas bases de dados Medline/Pubmed, Lilacs e Biblioteca Cochrane, utilizando as palavras-chave “gestational trophoblastic disease” e “pregnancy outcome”. Resultados foram selecionados 18 artigos de acordo com critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Não foi observada diminuição da fertilidade após a quimioterapia para neoplasia trofoblástica. Pacientes que engravidaram até 6 meses do término da quimioterapia apresentaram maiores taxas de abortamento quando comparadas às que esperaram mais de 6 meses. Alguns artigos encontraram maiores taxas de natimorto e nova mola hidatiforme. Apenas um estudo mostrou aumento da taxa de malformação. Conclusão as gestações subsequentes à neoplasia trofoblástica devem ser acompanhadas com vigilância clínica em decorrência da maior taxa de complicações na gestação, principalmente nas mulheres que engravidam até 6 meses após o término da quimioterapia. No entanto, os dados encontrados nos estudos tranquilizam quanto ao futuro reprodutivo dessas pacientes.
SUMMARY Introduction The successful development of chemotherapy enabled a fertilitysparing treatment for patients with trophoblastic neoplasia. After disease remission, the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy becomes a great concern for these women. Objective To analyze existing studies in the literature that describe the reproductive outcomes of patients with trophoblastic neoplasia treated with chemotherapy. Method Systematic review was performed searching for articles on Medline/ Pubmed, Lilacs and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “gestational trophoblastic disease” and “pregnancy outcome”. Results A total of 18 articles were included. No evidence of decreased fertility after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia was observed. The abortion rates in patients who conceived within 6 months after chemotherapy was higher compared to those who waited longer. Some studies showed increased rates of stillbirth and repeat hydatidiform moles. Only one work showed increased congenital abnormalities. Conclusion The pregnancies conceived after chemotherapy for trophoblastic neoplasia should be followed with clinical surveillance due to higher rates of some pregnancy complications. However, studies in the literature provide reassuring data about reproductive outcomes of these patients.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prenatal outcomes in a cohort of fetuses with mild bilateral pyelectasis and determine whether performing serial ultrasounds is a good follow-up strategy. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on 62 fetuses with mild bilateral pyelectasis. Fetal mild bilateral pyelectasis was considered when the renal pelvis measured (in millimeters) ≥5.0 to 10.0, ≥7.0 to 10.0, and ≥10.0 to 15 at ≤23 weeks 6 days, 24 to 31 weeks 6 days, and ≥32 weeks, respectively, with no uretero-calyceal dilatation. Ultrasounds were performed every 3 weeks to assess whether the mild bilateral pyelectasis regressed, remained unchanged (Group 1) or progressed (Group 2). RESULTS: Group 1 consisted of 53 fetuses (85.4%), and progression was observed in 9 cases (Group 2, 14.6%). The initial renal pelvis diameter was significantly larger in fetuses with progression (p=0.028). Statistically significant differences in the renal pelvis diameter were also found at weeks 31 and 35 for both kidneys (p<0.05). The cases requiring intrauterine procedures or early delivery were not observed. CONCLUSION: Fetal mild bilateral pyelectasis with no calyceal dilatation is a benign condition that can be managed in the postnatal period. The initial renal pelvis diameter and the diameter in week 31 or 35 were valuable parameters for identifying cases that would eventually need specific postnatal procedures.
RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a retenção de informações, após participação em grupo multiprofissional, em pacientes com diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG), por meio de contato telefônico. Método: foram incluídas 122 gestantes com diagnóstico de DMG. Após o diagnóstico, as pacientes eram encaminhadas ao grupo multiprofissional para receber orientações médicas, nutricionais e de enfermagem relacionadas à doença. Após três dias, as pacientes receberam um contato telefônico de um enfermeiro, que realizou perguntas relacionadas às informações recebidas. Na análise estatística, os resultados foram apresentados em frequências absolutas e relativas. Resultados: a maioria das pacientes, 119/122 (97,5%), estava conseguindo fazer a automonitorização glicêmica. Vinte e uma pacientes (17,2%) referiram ter dificuldades para realizar a glicemia capilar, sendo a principal relacionada às lancetas. Quanto à dieta proposta, 24/122 (19,7%) referiram que não estavam conseguindo cumprir; o fracionamento da dieta não foi alcançado por 23/122 (18,9%) das gestantes e 47 (38,5%) relataram ter ingerido açúcar nos dias seguintes à orientação do grupo multiprofissional. Conclusão: em relação ao tratamento proposto, houve boa adesão das pacientes, especialmente quanto à automonitorização glicêmica. Em relação aos controles nutricionais, observamos maior dificuldade no seguimento das orientações, mostrando haver necessidade de seguimento em longo prazo e de fornecer melhor esclarecimento às pacientes sobre a importância da nutrição no controle do diabetes.
SUMMARY Objective: To evaluate the retention of information after participation in multidisciplinary group in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) through a phone contact. Method: 122 pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes were included. After diagnosis of gestational diabetes, the patients were referred to the multidisciplinary group where they received medical, nutrition and nursing guidelines related to the disease. After three days these patients received one telephone call from a nurse, who made the same questions regarding the information received. In the statistical analysis, results were presented as absolute and relative frequencies. Results: Most patients 119/122 patients (97.5%) were managing to do self glucose monitoring. Twenty-one patients (17.2%) reported having difficulty performing the blood glucose, especially finger pricking. When questioning whether the woman was following the proposed diet, 24/122 (19.7%) patients said they did not; the meal frequency was not reached by 23/122 (18.9%) of the women, and forty-seven (38.5%) of the women reported having ingested sugar in the days following the guidance in multidisciplinary group. Conclusion: Regarding the proposed treatment, there was good adherence of patients, especially in relation to blood glucose monitoring. As for nutritional control, we observed greater difficulty in following the guidelines demonstrating the need for long-term monitoring, as well as further clarification to the patients about the importance of nutrition in diabetes management.
Resumo Estudo retrospectivo, de novembro de 2004 a maio de 2012, na Clínica Obstétrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, incluindo 92 gestações únicas com diagnóstico pré-natal de trissomia dos cromossomos 21 (T21), 18, 13 (T13/18) e monossomia do X (45X), realizado até a 26a semana, com o objetivo de descrever a frequência e investigar preditores do óbito fetal espontâneo (OF). O diagnóstico (T21: n=36; T13/T18: n=25; 45X: n=31) foi realizado em idade gestacional média de 18,3±3,7 semanas, por biópsia de vilo corial (n=22; 24%), amniocentese (n=66; 72%) e cordocentese (n=4; 4%). Malformação major presente em 45 (49%) fetos e hidropisia em 32 (35%), mais frequente no grupo 45X [n=24/31, 77% vs. T21 (n=6/36, 17%) e T13/18 (n=2/25, 8%); p<0,001]. Ecocardiografia fetal especializada foi realizada em 60% (55/92). Destes, 60% (33/55) tinham alterações na morfologia e/ou na função cardíaca. Fetos com T13/18 apresentaram incidência maior de anomalias cardíacas [60 vs. 25% (T21) e 29% (45X); p=0,01]. Ocorrência de OF em 55 (60%) gestações e mais frequente no grupo 45X [n=26/31, 84% vs. T21 (n=13/36, 36%) e T13/18 (n=16/25, 64%); p<0,01]. Análise stepwise demonstrou associação entre hidropisia e óbito em fetos com T21 (LR=4,29; IC95%=1,9-8,0; p<0,0001). Em fetos com 45X, a presença de alterações ecocardiográficas esteve associada com menor risco de OF (LR=0,56; IC95%=0,27-0,85; p=0,005). Não foram identificados fatores preditores no grupo T13/18. A letalidade intrauterina de fetos aneuploides é elevada. A presença de hidropisia aumenta o risco de OF em gestações com T21. Em gestações com 45X, a ocorrência de alterações ecocardiográficas reduz esse risco.
Summary A retrospective study from November 2004 to May 2012, conducted at the Obstetric Clinic of Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo (HC-FMUSP), which included 92 singleton pregnancies with prenatal diagnosis of trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21), 18, 13 (T13/18) and monosomy X (45X), with diagnosis performed until the 26th week of pregnancy. The aim of the study was to describe the frequency and to investigate predictors of spontaneous fetal death (FD). Diagnosis (T21, n=36; T13/18, n=25; 45X, n=31) was made at a mean gestational age of 18.3±3.7 weeks, through chorionic villus biopsy (n=22,24%), amniocentesis (n=66, 72%) and cordocentesis (n=4, 4%). Major malformations were present in 45 (49%); with hydrops in 32 (35%) fetuses, more frequently in 45X [n=24/31, 77% vs. T21 (n=6/36, 17%) and T13/18 (n=2/25, 8%), p<0.001]. Specialized fetal echocardiography was performed in 60% (55/92). Of these, 60% (33/55) showed changes in heart morphology and/or function. Fetuses with T13/18 had a higher incidence of cardiac anomalies [60 vs. 25% (T21) and 29% (45X), p= 0.01]. FD occurred in 55 (60%) gestations, being more frequent in 45X [n=26/31, 84% vs. T21 (n=13/36, 36%) and T13/18 (n=16/25, 64%), p<0.01]. Stepwise analysis showed a correlation between hydrops and death in fetuses with T21 (LR= 4.29; 95CI=1.9-8.0, p<0.0001). In fetuses with 45X, the presence of echocardiographic abnormalities was associated with lower risk of FD (LR= 0.56; 95CI=0.27- 0.85, p=0.005). No predictive factors were identified in the T13/18 group. Intra- uterine lethality of aneuploid fetuses is high. Occurrence of hydrops increases risk of FD in pregnancies with T21. In pregnancies with 45X, the occurrence of echocardiographic changes reduces this risk.