Abstract The Environmental enrichment technique, although scientifically recognized for raising the level of animal welfare, has led to the questioning of its influence on the results of experimental research. Thus, the goal is to promote reflection about the need for standardization of these procedures. For that, documents and experimental analysis were done, in order to quantify and characterize the types of environmental enrichment used and to evaluate the effect of that in the social behavior of Rattus norvegicus. Data from the document review confirmed the hypothesis that the researchers have used a variety of methods, not demonstrating a concern for standardization and prior assessment of its effects on the search results. Demand was corroborated in the experimental study in which, although there was available a simple object acting as refuge promotes behavioral improvements, the presence of the co-specific, as well as characteristics of the micro and macro environment can compromise the homogeneity of the sample. The data from this study endorse the need for validation procedures of environmental enrichment for specific proposals, to investigative data comparison, are possible and contribute to the refinement of the search to reduce the number of animals targeted for this purpose.
RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a evidência de aplicação da diatermia por ondas curtas (DOC) em indivíduos com dor lombar crônica (DLC) e seus parâmetros de prescrição. As fontes de dados (MEDLINE, PubMed, LILACS, DARE, PsycINFO, AusportMed, SciELO, PEDro e Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) foram pesquisadas sistematicamente quanto aos artigos publicados até dezembro de 2017. Estudos de ensaios clínicos randomizados e não randomizados que investigaram o efeito da aplicação da DOC na DLC foram selecionados. Dois revisores independentes avaliaram o risco de viés em estudos usando as escalas Jadad e Downs & Black. Cinco estudos (731 pacientes) foram incluídos e todos apresentaram melhora na DLC. A maioria usou a DOC de modo contínuo, com apenas um utilizando o modo pulsado (82 e 200 Hz). A DOC apresentou melhora na DLC, no entanto, há evidências limitadas para sua aplicação e ausência de padronização dos parâmetros utilizados. Além disso, os resultados que se referem a esse tópico devem ser interpretados com cautela devido à baixa qualidade metodológica e ao número limitado de estudos. Nível de evidência II; Revisão sistemática.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the evidence of application of short-wave diathermy (SWD) in individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and its prescription parameters. The data sources (MEDLINE, PubMed, LILACS, DARE, PsycINFO, AusportMed, SciELO, PEDro and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were systematically searched for articles published up to December 2017. Randomized and non-randomized clinical trial studies that investigated the effect of the application of SWD on CLBP were selected. Two independent reviewers assessed the risk of bias in studies using the Jadad and the Downs & Black scales. Five studies (731 patients) were included, all of whom presented improvements in CLBP. The majority used continuous mode SWD, with only one using pulsed mode (82 and 200 Hz). SWD produced improvements in CLBP, but there is limited evidence for its application, and a lack of standardization of the parameters used. Furthermore, the results that address this topic should be interpreted with caution due to their low methodological quality and limited number. Level of evidence II; Systematic review.
RESUMEN El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la evidencia de la diatermia por ondas cortas (DOC) en individuos con dolor lumbar crónico (DLC) y sus parámetros de prescripción. Las fuentes de datos (MEDLINE, PubMed, LILACS, DARE, PsycINFO, AusportMed, SciELO, PEDro y Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) fueron utilizadas para búsquedas sistemáticas de artículos publicados hasta diciembre de 2017. Fueron seleccionados los estudios de ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y no aleatorizados que investigaron el efecto de la aplicación de DOC en DLC. Dos revisores independientes evaluaron el riesgo de sesgo en estudios usando las escalas Jadad y Downs & Black. Fueron incluidos cinco estudios (731 pacientes) y todos presentaron mejora en DLC. La mayoría usó la DOC de modo continuo, con sólo uno usando el modo pulsado (82 y 200 Hz). La DOC produjo mejoras en DLC, sin embargo, hay evidencias limitadas para su aplicación y ausencia de estandarización de los parámetros utilizados. Además, los resultados que se refieren a ese tópico deben interpretarse con cautela debido a la baja calidad metodológica y al número limitado de estudios. Nivel de evidencia II; Revisión sistemática.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of three sessions of a passive stretching exercise protocol on the muscles of elderly female rats. METHODS: The effects of the stretching exercises on the soleus muscle were analyzed using immunohistochemistry [tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP), the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and the gene expression levels using real-time PCR of the transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), collagen type 1 (COL1), and collagen type 3 (COL3)]. Fifteen 26-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups, namely, Stretching (SG, n=8) and Control (CG, n=7). The passive mechanical stretching protocol consisted of a set of 4 1-minute repetitions, with 30 seconds between each repetition (total treatment of 4 minutes), three times a week for 1 week. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an increase of 71.4% in the TNF-α (p=0.04) gene expression levels for the SG and a 58% decrease in the TGF-β1 gene expression levels (p=0.005) in the SG compared to that in the CG. No significant differences were observed between the groups for the immunostaining of TIMP-1 or the gene expression levels of COL1 and COL3. CONCLUSION: Three sessions of static stretching reduced the gene expression level of TGF-β1, which, owing to its anti-fibrotic role, might contribute to the remodeling of the intramuscular connective tissue of the aging muscle. In addition, immunostaining revealed that TNF-α levels increased in the aging muscle tissue in response to stretching, indicating its effect on stimulating extracellular matrix degradation. These outcomes have important clinical implications in reinforcing the use of stretching exercises in the elderly, considering that the aging muscle presents an infiltration of connective tissue.
OBJECTIVE: How much force is needed to stretch skeletal muscle is still unknown. The aim of this study was to develop a device that mechanically stretches rat muscle to compare the force (N) required to stretch the soleus muscle of young and aged rats and the tibio-tarsal angle joint at neutral and stretched positions. METHODS: Twelve female Wistar rats were divided into two groups: a young group (YG, n=6, 311±11 g) of rats 3 months old and an aged group (AG, n=6, 351±43 g) of rats 15 months old. The left soleus muscle was mechanically held in full dorsal flexion and submitted to mechanical passive stretching: 1 bout of 10 repetitions, each repetition lasted 60 seconds with an interval of 45 seconds between repetitions, performed once a day, twice a week, for 1 week. The force required during stretching was measured by a load cell, and the tibio-tarsal angle joint was measured by photometry. RESULTS: The load cell calibration showed excellent reliability, as confirmed by the intraclass correlation coefficient value of 0.93. A decrease in delta force was found in the comparison between YG and AG (0.11±0.03 N vs 0.08±0.02 N, p<0.05, repeated measures ANOVA). There was no difference between the YG and the AG in the tibio-tarsal angle at resting position (87.1±3.8° vs 87.1±3.5°, p=0.35, Kruskal Wallis) and at the end of the stretching protocol (43.9±4.4° vs 42.6±3.4°, p=0.57, Kruskal Wallis). CONCLUSION: The device presented in this study is able to monitor the force necessary to stretch hindlimb rat muscles. Aged rats required less force than young rats to stretch the soleus muscle, and there was no difference regarding the tibio-tarsal angle between the two groups.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the choroid and sclera using hypercholesterolemia experimental model. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups: 8 rabbits (8 eyes), in the normal diet group (NG), were fed by a standard diet for 4 weeks; and 13 rabbits (13 eyes), in the hypercholesterolemic group (HG), were fed by a 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 8 weeks. Total serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol and fasting blood glucose exams were performed at the initiation of the experiment and at the euthanasia time. After hypercholesterolemic group 8th week and NG 4th week, animals were euthanized and their eyes underwent immunohistochemical analysis with the RAM-11 and VEGFR-1). RESULTS: The diet has induced a significant increase in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in HG when compared with NG (p<0.001). There was a significant increase in the RAM-11 and VEGFR-1 expressions in hypercholesterolemic group choroid and sclera in relation to NG (p<0,001). CONCLUSION: This study has revealed that the hypercholesterolemic diet in rabbits induces an increase in the macrophage concentration and immunoreactivity to VEGFR-1 in the choroid and sclera, resembling human age-related macular degeneration (ARMD).
OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é investigar a expressão do fator de crescimento vascular endotelial (VEGF) na coroide e esclera, utilizando um modelo experimental de hipercolesterolemia. MÉTODO: Coelhos New Zealand foram organizados em dois grupos: O grupo dieta normal (GN), composto por 8 coelhos (8 olhos), recebeu ração padrão para coelhos, durante 4 semanas; e o grupo hipercolesterolêmico (GH), composto por 13 coelhos (13 olhos), recebeu dieta rica em colesterol a 1% por 8 semanas. Foi realizada a dosagem sérica de colesterol total, triglicerídeos, HDL colesterol, glicemia de jejum no início do experimento e no momento da eutanásia. Ao final da 8ª semana para o GH e 4ª semana para o GN foi realizada a eutanásia dos animais e os olhos foram submetidos à análise imuno-histoquímica com os anticorpos RAM-11 e VEGFR-1. RESULTADOS: Observou-se significativo aumento do colesterol total e triglicerídeos do GH em relação ao GN (p<0,001). Houve significativo aumento da expressão da RAM-11 e VEGFR-1 na coroide e esclera dos animais do GH em relação ao GN (p<0,001). CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstra que a dieta hipercolesterolêmica em coelhos induz ao aumento da concentração de macrófagos e da imunorreatividade ao VEGFR-1 na coroide e esclera, expressando similaridade com a degeneração macular relacionada à idade (DMRI) humana.