ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to investigate the potential role of CAMK II pathway in the compression-regulated OPG expression in periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). Material and Methods The PDL tissue model was developed by 3-D culturing human PDLCs in a thin sheet of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds, which was subjected to static compression of 25 g/cm2 for 3, 6 and 12 h, with or without treatment of KN-93. After that, the expression of OPG, RANKL and NFATC2 was investigated through real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Results After static compression, the NFATC2 and RANKL expression was significantly up-regulated, while partially suppressed by KN-93 for 6 and 12 h respectively. The OPG expression was significantly down-regulated by compression in 3 h, started to elevate in 6 h, and significantly up-regulated in 12 h. The up-regulation after 12 h was significantly suppressed by KN-93. Conclusions Long-term static compression increases OPG expression in PDLCs, at least partially, via the CAMK II pathway.
OBJECTIVE: To determine how early musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) develop in dental professionals and to explore the potential differences among distinct dental specialties. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 271 dental postgraduates majoring in five dental specialties were recruited, i.e., orthodontics, prosthodontics, endodontics, periodontics and alveolar surgery. 254 age-matched non-dental postgraduates served as the control. The standardized Nordic questionnaire on MSDs and a self-report questionnaire regarding correlative factors (only for dental postgraduates) were answered through emails. Reliability of responses was assessed applying test-retest method. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient of participants' answers ranged from 0.89 to 0.96. Dental postgraduates had significantly higher prevalence of MSDs than the control group, especially at neck, upper back and lower back. In all dental specialties included, high prevalence of MSDs was reported at neck (47.5%-69.8%), shoulders (50.8%-65.1%), lower back (27.1%-51.2%) and upper back (25.6%-46.5%), with lower prevalence at elbows (5.1%-18.6%), hips (3.4%-16.3%) and ankles (5.1%-11.6%). Periodontics students reported the worst MSDs in most body regions except wrists and knees, which were more prevalent for prosthodontic and alveolar surgery students, respectively. Furthermore, year of clinical work, clinical hours per week and desk hours per week were found as risk factors for MSDs, whereas physical exercise and rest between patients as protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: High and specialty-related MSDs afflict dental professionals even since very early stage of careers. Prevention aimed at the specialty-related characteristics and the risk/protective factors revealed in this study should be introduced to dental personnel as early as possible.