Objective: To evaluate the interrelationships between childhood maltreatment, life satisfaction (LS), and depressive symptoms, and to investigate LS as a mediating factor in the association between childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms. Methods: The sample consisted of 342 adolescents, aged 11 to 17 years (mean = 13.3, SD = 1.52 years), recruited from a public school in Salvador, Brazil. Participants filled out instruments for the collection of sociodemographic data and evaluation of childhood maltreatment, LS, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to evaluate the mediating effect of LS. Results: We detected significant negative correlations between childhood maltreatment and LS and between LS and depressive symptoms. We observed a significant positive correlation between childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms. LS partially mediated the association between childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms, mitigating the impact of maltreatment. Conclusion: LS played an important mediating role in the association between childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms. Longitudinal studies are recommended to fully elucidate these associations, reinforcing the need for attention and care of this vulnerable population.
ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effect of levels of physical activity on asthma control in children. Methods A cross-sectional study, including public school students aged 8 to 12 years, of both sexes, with asthma, from a capital and a medium-sized cities in Southern Brazil. At home, the students answered the questionnaire on levels of physical activity and disease control. Results A total of 482 schoolchildren with asthma participated in the study, with mean age of 10.9±2.2 years, and 253 (52%) were girls. Regarding disease control, 50% had controlled asthma, and 67% were considered sedentary. Schoolchildren with controlled asthma were more active than those with uncontrolled asthma (p=0.032). Active schoolchildren were more likely to have asthma controlled (OR=1.5; 95%CI: 1.04-2.25). Conclusion The results demonstrated an association between physical activity levels and asthma control. More active schoolchildren were more likely to have asthma controlled.
RESUMO Objetivo Investigar o efeito dos níveis de atividade física no controle da asma em crianças. Métodos Estudo transversal, incluindo escolares da rede pública, de 8 a 12 anos, de ambos os sexos, com asma, de uma capital e de uma cidade de porte médio da Região Sul do Brasil. Os escolares responderam, em seus domicílios, um questionário de níveis de atividade física e de controle da doença. Resultados Participaram da pesquisa 482 escolares com asma, com média de idade de 10,9±2,2 anos, e 253 (52%) eram meninas. Quanto ao controle da doença, 50% apresentavam asma controlada e 67% foram considerados sedentários. Os escolares com asma controlada foram mais ativos do que os com asma não controlada (p=0,032). Os escolares ativos tiveram mais chance de ter a asma controlada (RC=1,5; IC95%: 1,04-2,25). Conclusão Os resultados demonstraram associação entre os níveis de atividade física e controle da asma. Os escolares mais ativos apresentaram mais chance de ter a asma controlada.
Objective: To assess differences in executive functioning between children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbid or not with bipolar disorder (BD), and to study the neuropsychological profile of subjects with the comorbidity in a clinical sample from a developing country. Method: Case-control study comparing 23 participants with BD + ADHD and 85 ADHD-only subjects aged 6 to 17 years old. Both groups were drug-free. Executive function domains were assessed with the Stroop Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and the Continuous Performance Test II. Results: The group with juvenile BD + ADHD showed a significantly worse performance on the Stroop task, including time in color (p = 0.002), time in color-word (p < 0.001), interference, number or errors in color and color-word (p = 0.001), and number of errors in word cards (p = 0.028). No between-group differences were found in other tests. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that ADHD-only and ADHD + BD do not show differences in inhibitory control and set-shifting domains. However, children and adolescents with BD and comorbid ADHD show greater impairment in processing speed and interference control. This suggests a potentially higher impairment in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and may be a potential neuropsychological signature of juvenile BD comorbid with ADHD.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of the Val66Met polymorphism at the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene on the performance of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder [juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD)] on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). METHODS: Children and adolescents were assessed by the K-SADS-PL and a clinical evaluation for BD and comorbid conditions. Manic and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Children Depression Rating Scale - Reviewed. The Val66Met polymorphism at the BDNF was genotyped from a blood sample. Patients' IQ and executive functions were assessed by a standard cognitive flexibility test (WCST). RESULTS: Fifty-three subjects were included in the study. No significant difference was observed between the Val/Val and Val/Met+Met/Met groups on any WCST scores in the MANCOVA (F48,5 = .76; p = .59; Perseverative Errors, p = .66; Nonperseverative Errors, p = .58; Categories Completed, p = .34; Attempts to Reach First Category, p=.64; and Percentage of Conceptual Level Responses, p = .99). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings from this sample of children and adolescents with BD do not replicate results from studies of adults and suggest the existence of differences in the neurobiology of this disorder across the life cycle. Investigations of larger samples are necessary to confirm these data.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the presence of behavioral inhibition and anxiety disorders during childhood in Brazilian adult patients with panic disorder and social anxiety disorder compared to a control group. METHODS: Fifty patients with panic disorder, 50 patients with social anxiety disorder, and 50 control subjects were included in the study. To assess the history of childhood anxiety, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children, Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS-E), and the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Parent Version (DICA-P) were used. The presence of behavioral inhibition in childhood was assessed by the self-reported scale of Behavioral Inhibition Retrospective Version (RSRI-30). RESULTS: Patients showed significantly higher prevalence of anxiety disorders and behavioral inhibition in childhood compared to the control group. Patients with social anxiety disorder also showed significantly higher rates of avoidance disorder (46% vs. 18%, p = 0.005), social anxiety disorder (60% vs. 26%, p = 0.001), presence of at least one anxiety disorder (82% vs. 56%, p = 0.009) and global behavioral inhibition (2.89 ± 0.61 vs. 2.46 ± 0.61, p < 0.05) and school/social behavioral inhibition (3.56 ± 0.91 vs. 2.67 ± 0.82, p < 0.05) in childhood compared to patients with panic disorder. CONCLUSION: Our data are in accordance to the literature and corroborates the theory of an anxiety diathesis, suggesting that a history of anxiety disorders in childhood is associated with an anxiety disorder diagnosis, mainly social anxiety disorder, in adulthood.
OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a presença de história de comportamento inibido e de transtornos de ansiedade na infância em pacientes brasileiros adultos com transtorno do pânico e com transtorno de ansiedade social, comparando-os com um grupo controle. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta pacientes com transtorno do pânico, 50 com transtorno de ansiedade social e 50 controles participaram do estudo. Para avaliar a presença de história de ansiedade na infância foi utilizada a Escala para Avaliação de Transtornos Afetivos e Esquizofrenia para Crianças em Idade Escolar - Versão Epidemiológica (K-SADS-E) e o Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Parent Version (DICA-P). A presença de comportamento inibido na infância foi avaliada através da Escala Auto-Aplicativa de Comportamento Inibido - Versão Retrospectiva (RSRI-30). RESULTADOS: Os pacientes apresentavam uma prevalência significativamente maior de história de transtornos de ansiedade e de comportamento inibido em relação ao grupo controle. Pacientes com transtorno de ansiedade social apresentavam, também, taxas significativamente maiores de transtorno de evitação (46% x 18%, p = 0,005), transtorno de ansiedade social (60% x 26%, p = 0,001), presença de pelo menos um transtorno de ansiedade na infância (82% X 56%, p = 0,009), comportamento inibido global (2,89 ± 0,61 vs. 2,46 ± 0,61, p < 0,05) e comportamento inibido escola/social (3,56 ± 0,91 vs. 2,67 ± 0,82, p < 0.05) na infância em comparação com pacientes com transtorno do pânico. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos dados são similares aos encontrados na literatura e corroboram a teoria da diátese de ansiedade, sugerindo que a história de transtornos de ansiedade na infância é associada com transtornos de ansiedade, principalmente transtorno de ansiedade social, na vida adulta.