ABSTRACT Exopolysaccharide (EPS) of two benthic diatoms, Amphora sp. and Stauroneis sp., with different biofilm formation abilities were investigated. The ratio of suspension-cells/biofilm-cells was employed to indicate the diatom biofilm formation abilities. The soluble EPS from the supernatant of whole culture, tightly bound EPS from floating cells, loosely and tightly bound EPS from biofilm cells were fractionated as SL-EPS, F-TB-EPS, BF-LB-EPS and BF-TB-EPS, respectively. The analysis for productions and monosaccharide compositions indicated that EPS from two diatoms were different in terms of the productions, distributions, and monomer compositions. Amphora sp. produced more (1.5-fold) total exopolysaccharides, but less (<0.4-fold) BF-TB-EPS than Stauroneis sp. The monosaccharides of the EPS from Amphora sp. were more diverse than those of Stauroneis sp., with 13 and 10 monomers, respectively. Neutral sugars, Glc, Xyl and Man, were abundant in Stauroneis sp., while Gal, Glc and Xyl were rich in Amphora sp. Uronic acid and hexosamine were present in all fractions of two diatoms, especially Glc-A being the most abundant monomer in SL-EPS of Amphora sp. It was proposed that the high content of uronic acid (especially Glc-A) might be crucial for the strong biofilm formation abilities of Amphora sp.