Agmatine has neuroprotective effects on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) as well as cortical and spinal neurons. It protects RGCs from oxidative stress even when it is not present at the time of injury. As agmatine has high affinity for various cellular receptors, we assessed protective mechanisms of agmatine using transformed RGCs (RGC-5 cell line). Differentiated RGC-5 cells were pretreated with 100 μM agmatine and consecutively exposed to 1.0 mM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Cell viability was determined by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and the effects of selective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine (0-500 nM) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor agonist NMDA (0-100 µM) were evaluated. Agmatine’s protective effect was compared to a selective NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. After a 16-h exposure to H2O2, the LDH assay showed cell loss greater than 50%, which was reduced to about 30% when agmatine was pretreated before injury. Yohimbine almost completely inhibited agmatine’s protective effect, but NMDA did not. In addition, MK-801 (0-100 µM) did not significantly attenuate the H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that neuroprotective effects of agmatine on RGCs under oxidative stress may be mainly attributed to the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway.