Abstract Neuroendocrine substances play essential roles in regulating the normal physiological functions of testicles. The purpose of this study is to explore the localization and effects of four neuroendocrine markers (NSE, SP, NFH and DβH) in normal and cryptorchid testes of Bactrian camels using western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence methods. The results showed that cryptorchidism caused a reduction in layers of spermatogenic epithelium and decreased glycogen positivity in the basement membrane. The ultrastructure revealed that macrophages were always found around the Leydig cells, crowded with swelling mitochondria in cryptorchidism. Expression of NSE in the Leydig cells of cryptorchidism was significantly weakened compared to that in the normal group(p<0.01). We found that SP was always distributed along the nerve fibers in normal testes and was expressed in the Leydig cells of cryptorchidism. However, expression of NFH in the cryptorchidic tissue was strongly positive in the spermatogenic epithelium, with limited expression in Leydig cells and no expression in peritubular myoid cells. Therefore, the expression of DβH in the Sertoli cells was comparatively strong in both the normal and cryptorchidism groups. NFH and DβH expression was significantly increased in the cryptorchidism group compared with the normal group (p<0.01). These findings indicated that the underdeveloped seminiferous epithelium and pathological changes in cryptorchid tissue in Bactrian camels were potentially related to a disorder in glycoprotein metabolism. Our results suggest that NSE and SP could help judge the pathological changes of cryptorchidism. The present study provides the first evidence at the protein level for the existence of NFH and DβH in Sertoli and Leydig cells in Bactrian camel cryptorchidism and provides a more in-depth understanding of neuroendocrine regulation is crucial for animal cryptorchidism.