Abstract One of the main challenges for engineers in designing high-speed crafts is the evaluation of hydrodynamic loads during the impact of hull to wave’s surface. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the pressure distribution on three wedge-sections with 15°, 20° and 30° deadrise during water-entry. Assessment of pressure distribution on the effects of parameters such as drop heights, deadrise angles and the weights of the models had done. Time histories of impact pressure were recorded. It was showed that, the maximum pressure for 20° wedge had increased 2.4 times in comparison with 30° wedge while this number is 1.23 time for the 15° wedge. But the effects of weight and drop height were not as much as deadrise angle. The results give an appropriate approximation of the maximum pressures by the model resembling high-speed craft’s hull sections, which can be used to estimate impact loads in different operational condition. The condition of water level during the impact process has also been observed in each test. The nature of impact test with non-constant speed can clarify the real behavior of falling objects, which can be assumed as the significance of current study.
Response surface methodology was used to design and evaluate the experimental variables for Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst preparation. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation and chemical reduction. Thirteen different samples of the catalyst were prepared at different KOH concentrations and annealed at various temperatures, before applying them in palm oil hydrogenation. Hydrogenation was performed on a 0.12% Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst at a temperature of 393 K, hydrogen pressure of 500 kPa and agitation of 500 rpm for 1 h. The iodine value (IV) and trans fatty acids (TFAs) content responses were measured for each hydrogenated palm oil sample. The predicted models were verified for both responses and found to be statistically adequate. An optimization study was performed on the catalyst preparation variables for minimizing both IV and TFAs content. The Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 prepared under optimized conditions exhibited 47% higher conversion and 22% lower trans-isomerization selectivity than Escat 1241 commercial catalyst. The Pd-B/γ-Al2O3 catalyst preparation variables have a noticeable effect on palm oil hydrogenation conversion and trans-isomerization selectivity.