RESUMO Objetivo: Este estudo teve por objetivo determinar a expressão de esclerostina (SOST) em pacientes com fraturas vertebrais osteoporóticas por compressão na coluna toracolombar antes e depois da Cifoplastia Percutânea (PKP). Métodos: Os níveis de SOST no soro foram quantificados por meio de um Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Ligado à Enzima (ELISA) sanduíche, realizado no pré-operatório e aos seis meses pós-operatório. Foram também registrados a altura do corpo vertebral anterior, os ângulos cifóticos, e os valores obtidos na escala analógica visual (VAS). Resultados: O nível de SOST no soro foi altamente expresso nos pacientes, e permaneceu correlacionado negativamente com a densidade mineral óssea (DMO). As alturas vertebrais, os ângulos cifóticos locais, e as pontuações obtidas na escala VAS foram significativamente melhores após o PKP. No entanto, o SOST foi correlacionado positivamente com a DMO aos seis meses pós-operatório. Conclusão: O PKP foi uma estratégia eficaz para o tratamento de fraturas vertebrais osteoporóticas por compressão na coluna toracolombar, melhorando os níveis de DMO e diminuindo os níveis de SOST no soro. Nível de Evidência II, Estudo prospectivo comparativo.
ABSTRACT Objective: This study sought to determine serum sclerostin (SOST) expression in patients with osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral compression fractures before and after percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP). Methods: Serum SOST levels were quantified with a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) preoperatively and six months postoperatively. Anterior vertebral height, kyphotic angles, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores were also recorded. Results: Serum SOST was highly expressed in patients and remained negatively correlated with bone mineral density (BMD). Vertebral heights, local kyphotic angles, and VAS scores were all significantly improved after PKP. However, serum SOST was positively correlated with BMD six months after surgery. Conclusion: PKP was an effective treatment strategy for osteoporotic thoracolumbar vertebral compression fractures, improving BMD and decreasing serum SOST levels. Level of Evidence II, Prospective comparative study.
Abstract Purpose: To investigate the therapeutic benefits of Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) vulnerability after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and identify its potential action of mechanisms on TBIinduced injuries. Methods: The rat TBI model was performed by using a controlled cortical impact device. The BBB permeability induced by TBI was measured through Evans Blue dye superflux and western blotting or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for tight junctional proteins (TJPs). The post-TBI changes in oxidative stress markers, inflammatory response and neuron apoptosis in brain tissue were also tested. Results: Herein, the results showed that HSYA acutely attenuated BBB permeability via increasing the production of the TJPs, including occludin, claudin-1 and zonula occludens protein 24 h after TBI. Additionally, HSYA could suppress the secretion of proinflammatory factors, such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), and also concurrently down-regulate the expression of inflammation-related Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa-B (TLR4/NF-kB) protein. These HSYA challenged changes were accompanied by the decreased TBI induced oxidative stress markers and inhibited the expression of apoptosis proteins Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Conclusions: Taken together, all findings suggested that HSYA (30 mg/kg) are against TBI through improving the integrity in BBB, which are associated with the antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antiapoptosis via the probable mechanism of down-regulation of the TLR4/NF-kB pathway, and its in-detail protective mechanisms are under study.
OBJECTIVES: Minimally invasive paracentetic suprapubic cystostomy is a technique that should be learned by all surgical trainees and residents. This study aimed to develop a self-made training model for paracentetic suprapubic cystostomy and placement of the suprapubic catheter and then to evaluate its effectiveness in training fourth-year medical students. METHODS: Medical students were divided into an experimental group receiving comprehensive training involving literature, video, and model use and a control group receiving all the same training protocols as the experimental group except without hands-on practice using the model. Each student’s performance was video-recorded, followed by subjective and objective evaluations by urology experts and statistical analysis. RESULTS: All students completed the surgical procedures successfully. The experimental group’s performance scores were significantly higher than those of the control group (median final performance scores of 91.0 vs. 86.8, respectively). Excellent scores were achieved by more students in the experimental group than in the control group (55% vs. 20%), and fewer poor scores were observed in the experimental group than in the control group (5% vs. 30%). CONCLUSIONS: Based on its cost-effectiveness, reusability, and training effectiveness, this paracentetic suprapubic cystostomy training model is able to achieve goals in teaching practice quickly and easily. Use of the model should be encouraged for training senior medical students and resident physicians who may be expected to perform emergent suprapubic catheter insertion at some time.
Abstract The ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22) is an oncogene and its expression is upregulated in many types of cancer. In the nucleus, USP22 functions as one subunit of the SAGA to regulate gene transcription. However, the genome-wide USP22 binding sites and its direct target genes are yet clear. In this study, we characterized the potential genomic binding sites of UPS22 and GCN5 by ChIP-seq using specific antibodies in HeLa cells. There were 408 overlapping putative target genes bound by both USP22 and GCN5. Motif analysis showed that the sequences bound by USP22 and GCN5 shared two common motifs. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis indicated that the genes targeted by USP22 and GCN5 were involved in different physiological processes and pathways. Further RNA-seq, GO and pathway analyses revealed that knockdown of UPS22 induced differential expression of many genes that participated in diverse physiological processes, such as metabolic process. Integration of ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data revealed that UPS22 bound to the promoters of 56 genes. These findings may provide new insights into the regulation of USP22 on gene expression during the development of cervical cancer.
ABSTRACT The spoilage of beer by bacteria is of great concern to the brewer as this can lead to turbidity and abnormal flavors. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for detection of beer-spoilage bacteria is highly specific and provides results much faster than traditional microbiology techniques. However, one of the drawbacks is the inability to differentiate between live and dead cells. In this paper, the combination of propidium monoazide (PMA) pretreatment and conventional PCR had been described. The established PMA-PCR identified beer spoilage Lactobacillus brevis based not on their identity, but on the presence of horA gene which we show to be highly correlated with the ability of beer spoilage LAB to grow in beer. The results suggested that the use of 30 µg/mL or less of PMA did not inhibit the PCR amplification of DNA derived from viable L. brevis cells. The minimum amount of PMA to completely inhibit the PCR amplification of DNA derived from dead L. brevis cells was 2.0 µg/mL. The detection limit of PMA-PCR assay described here was found to be 10 colony forming units (CFU)/reaction for the horA gene. Moreover, the horA-specific PMA-PCR assays were subjected to 18 reference isolates, representing 100% specificity with no false positive amplification observed. Overall the use of horA-specific PMA-PCR allows for a substantial reduction in the time required for detection of potential beer spoilage L. brevis and efficiently differentiates between viable and nonviable cells.