Indica and japonica are two main subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) that differ clearly in morphological and agronomic traits, in physiological and biochemical characteristics and in their genomic structure. However, the proteins and genes responsible for these differences remain poorly characterized. In this study, proteomic tools, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, were used to globally identify proteins that differed between two sequenced rice varieties (93-11 and Nipponbare). In all, 47 proteins that differed significantly between 93-11 and Nipponbare were identified using mass spectrometry and database searches. Interestingly, seven proteins were expressed only in Nipponbare and one protein was expressed specifically in 93-11; these differences were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and proteomic analysis of other indica and japonica rice varieties. This is the first report to successfully demonstrate differences in the protein composition of indica and japonica rice varieties and to identify candidate proteins and genes for future investigation of their roles in the differentiation of indica and japonica rice.
Snake liver has been implicated in the adaptation of snakes to a variety of habitats. However, to date, there has been no systematic analysis of snake liver proteins. In this study, we undertook a proteomic analysis of liver from the colubrid snake Elaphe taeniura using a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flightmass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We also constructed a local protein sequence database based on transcriptome sequencing to facilitate protein identification. Of the 268 protein spots revealed by 2-DE 109 gave positive MS signals, 84 of which were identified by searching the NCBInr, Swiss-Prot and local databases. The other 25 protein spots could not be identified, possibly because their transcripts were not be stable enough to be detected by transcriptome sequencing. GO analysis showed that most proteins may be involved in binding, catalysis, cellular processes and metabolic processes. Forty-two of the liver proteins identified were found in other reptiles and in amphibians. The findings of this study provide a good reference map of snake liver proteins that will be useful in molecular investigations of snake physiology and adaptation.
Seeds are the most important plant storage organ and play a central role in the life cycle of plants. Since little is known about the protein composition of rice (Oryza sativa) seeds, in this work we used proteomic methods to obtain a reference map of rice seed proteins and identify important molecules. Overall, 480 reproducible protein spots were detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis on pH 4-7 gels and 302 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and database searches. Together, these proteins represented 252 gene products and were classified into 12 functional categories, most of which were involved in metabolic pathways. Database searches combined with hydropathy plots and gene ontology analysis showed that most rice seed proteins were hydrophilic and were related to binding, catalytic, cellular or metabolic processes. These results expand our knowledge of the rice proteome and improve our understanding of the cellular biology of rice seeds.