ABSTRACT Traffic of heavy machinery at harvest and log extraction causes structural degradation of the soil, but studies on the effects of forest harvesting on soils with high organic matter content and exchangeable Al are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of mechanized forest harvesting operations on a Dystric Cambisol (Humic) with high organic matter (more 50 g kg1) content and exchangeable Al (more 6,0 cmolc kg-1), reforested with Pinus taeda L. The evaluated harvesting system were the whole-tree, in which the feller-buncher cuts and lays the trees down in bundles; the skidder drags the tree bundles up near a road; and the harvester delimbs and cuts the trees into short logs, stacking them on the roadside to be loaded onto trucks. The areas were evaluated for soil conditions at pre-harvest, prior to harvest, and at post-harvest, consisting of areas of low disturbance, high disturbance, forest residues and log yards. The effects of compaction after forest harvesting are observed by the decrease in total porosity (especially biopores and macropores), soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, and stability of aggregates. After forest harvesting, soil compaction was observed in all evaluated situations, but with different depths depending on operation type and the intensity of traffic carried in each area.
A indústria metalúrgica tem buscado empregar processos de fusão mais eficientes. Os fornos rotativos a gás natural e óleo de xisto surgem como uma alternativa interessante para a produção de ligas ferrosas. Durante a fusão no forno rotativo acontece uma maior queima de elementos químicos, exigindo a utilização de técnicas de carburação adequadas. No presente trabalho foram avaliadas diferentes formas de adição de carburantes durante a fusão de ferros fundidos cinzentos e nodulares, utilizando fornos rotativos a óleo de xisto e gás natural. Dois tipos de carburantes, com diferentes granulometrias, foram adicionados em diferentes estágios do processo de fusão. Os resultados mostram que o rendimento de carburação é fortemente afetado pelo estado da carga metálica. O melhor rendimento foi obtido pelo carburante de coque de petróleo calcinado com granulometria de 1-3 mm, por meio da adição à carga no estado pastoso.
Metallurgic industry has sought for more efficient casting processes. Fuel oil and gas-fired rotary furnaces rise as an interesting alternative for cast irons production. It must be emphasized that during the fusion process in rotary furnaces, a higher burning of alloying elements occur, demanding the use of a suitable carbonizing technique in order to attend the chemical composition specifications. The present work aimed in the application and study of different carbonizing techniques during the production of gray and ductile cast irons using fuel oil and gas-fired rotary furnaces. Two carburant types with different particle sizes were added in different stages of fusion process. Results show that carbonizing efficiency is strongly affected by the state of the metallic charge. The best results were obtained by the calcined petroleum coke with a particle size of 1-3 mm, added to the pasty metal loading.