Abstract In this work, the grapheme oxide (GO) and GO/ZnO nanocomposite were successfully obtained from the oxidation of graphite and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In the GO/ZnO nanocomposite, the GO sheets were coated with aggregated ZnO nanoneedles with ca. 20 nm of diameter. The obtained materials were used as heterogeneous catalysts for acetylation of Soybean Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAME), promoting the epoxy ring-opening using acetic anhydride. The epoxy ring was almost completely opened in the presence of GO or GO/ZnO nanocomposites, with conversion rates up to 99% and selectivity of ca. 90%, and partially opened using only ZnO. The GO/Zn and GO catalysts were reused three times with conversion rates of ca. 85 and 74%, respectively.
The accumulation of antibiotics in wastewater has led to the development and spreading of antibiotic resistance in the environment. Amoxicillin (Amox), a beta-lactamic antibiotic, is one of the most frequently consumed antibiotics in the world. We have applied two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) containing zinc(II) as platforms to degrade Amox. We have predicted the adsorption of this antibiotic via molecular docking calculations which have been further corroborated by means of Fourier transform infrared and UV-Vis spectroscopies, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning microscopy measurements. We have subsequently performed mass spectrometry analysis of Amox@zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) and Amox@Zn(1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) (ZnBDC) to demonstrate the degradation of Amox upon contact with the Zn-containing frameworks. We propose a possible pathway for the degradation of Amox involving the cleavage of the four-membered β-lactam ring. These Zn-containing frameworks provide a biocompatible platform for the degradation in solution of Amox, which should also be suitable to degrade other β-lactam antibiotics.
This work presents the optimization of the microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of [Zn(BDC)(H2O)2]n . The reactions were carried out at the fixed temperature of 120 ºC for 10, 20, 30 and 40 min. Pure crystalline [Zn(BDC)(H2O)2]n was obtained in high yield (ca. 90%) with a reaction time of 10 min. The phase obtained and its purity was confirmed by Rietveld refinement, with a final value for Rwp/Rexp equal to 1.48. Increased reaction times (20, 30 and 40 min) favored the formation of unwanted by products, resulting in mixtures of several crystalline phases.