Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physical and chemical quality of the brown soybean preserve in function of the ascorbic acid concentration and the maceration time, and also to evaluate the chemical composition, microbiological hazard, and acceptability of the best preserve, in addition verify its technological, nutritional, functional and sensory viability. The hardness of the grain ranged between 8.6 and 23N and was significantly affected by the maceration time. The ascorbic acid concentration influenced antioxidant activity (ranged between 4.3 and 183.8 mg100g-1) and total phenolic compounds (ranged between 176.4 and 466.2 mg100g-1). The best brown soybean preserve was obtained with a maceration time of 23 min and an ascorbic acid concentration of 0.15 g100g-1 . This shows high nutritional value and essential amino acid content, absence of trypsin inhibitor and microbiological risk, and also sensory acceptance. Therefore, the brown soybean preserve is viable, and its consumption is recommended.
Abstract Food-type soybean, considered a functional and nutritious food, becomes an new alternative food in human nutrition, and its preserve is an option to the consumer market. The present study aims to verify the effect of maceration time of the grains and the acetic acid concentration in brine on the physical and chemical characteristics of a edible soybean preserves, and to evaluate the proximal composition, microbiological risk and sensory acceptance of the selected preserve. The methodology used was the response surface and the central composite rotational design. The presence of acetic acid in the brine was prejudicial to the quality of the edible soybean preserve - BRSMG 790A cultivar. The soybean preserve with the best characteristics was obtained with a maceration time of 100 minutes and without the addition of acetic acid. The product was microbiological safe, showed sensory acceptance and high nutritional value (15.5 g 100 g-1 of protein and 7.0 g 100 g-1 of lipid), free of trypsin inhibitor. The essential amino acids represented 17.2% of those in the dry grain, more than 50% the standard values proposed for the essential amino acids for children and adults. The selected preserve maintained 31.25% of the antioxidant activity of the grains and could be used as a viable technological option.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different microwave-roasting timeson different sizes of soybean grains with black tegument to achieve the best crunchiness, flavor, and hardness. Black soybean dragées- containing a soybean core coated with layers of chocolate (dragée) - were manufactured, and their nutritional value, microbiological risk, acceptability, and consumer-purchase intentions were verified. Flavor and crunchiness of the roasted black soybeans wereonly affected by the roasting time in the microwave, whereas the hardness was only affected by grain size. The best core of the dragéewas obtainedusing grains ofsieve size 15 (large grains) roastedin the microwave for 11 min; this core presented higher frequencies for extremely crunchy notes (56%), toasted flavor (61%), and an instrumental hardness close to that of the existing commercial product (33.17 N). The manufactured dragées did not present resistant starch, anthocyanins, and microbiological risk, and they were sensorially accepted by the tasters (mean scores of 7.77 for texture and 8.36 for appearance on a scale of 1 to 9). Thus, roasted black soybean dragéeshave a high marketing potential from technological, nutritional, and sensorial points of view.
RESUMO: Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do tempo de torra no micro-ondas para diferentes tamanhos de grãos de soja tipo alimento de tegumento preto, de forma a atingir a melhor crocância, sabor e dureza, e em seguida caracterizar o seu confeito, estruturado na forma de núcleo e camadas de cobertura de chocolate (drageados), em relação ao valor nutricional, risco microbiológico, aceitabilidade e intenção de compra pelos consumidores. O sabor e a crocância da soja preta torrada foram afetados somente pelo tempo de torra em micro-ondas, enquanto a dureza somente foi afetada pela dimensão dos grãos. O melhor núcleo (selecionado) foi obtido com os grãos de peneira 15 (grãos grandes), no tempo de 11 min de torra em micro-ondas, pois apresentou maior frequência para as notas de extremamente crocante (56%), sabor de torrado (61%), e uma dureza instrumental próxima ao produto comercial (33,17 N). As drágeas não apresentaram amido resistente, antocianinas e risco microbiológico, e foram sensorialmente aceitas pelos provadores (scores médios de 7,77 para textura e 8,36 para aparência, em uma escala de 1 a 9). Portanto, o drageado de soja preta torrada com chocolate é viável do ponto de vista tecnológico, nutricional e sensorial, com alto potencial de comercialização.
Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC), the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh.) and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr.) Grove var. truncata (Schw.) Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L.) were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA) medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa) and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity), and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm) and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum) were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds) and six (6.5 mm large seeds) replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.