Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the modification in the silver component is capable of providing GuttaFlow 2 with antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis compared with epoxy resin-based (AH Plus) and zinc oxide and eugenol-based (Endofill) sealers. The antibacterial activity was evaluated using a reference strain of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212). Freshly mixed sealers were subjected to the agar diffusion test (ADT), while the direct contact test (DCT) was performed after materials setting. ADT results were obtained through measurements, in millimeters, of the inhibition zones promoted by the materials, using a digital caliper. In DCT, values of CFU/mL promoted by the three sealers were compared in three experimental periods (1 min, 1 h, and 24 h). The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn post-hoc tests (p < 0.05). In both ADT and DCT, GuttaFlow 2 presented no effect against E. faecalis, while Endofill and AH Plus showed similar inhibition zones. Endofill was the only material capable of reducing bacterial growth in DCT. In conclusion, modifications in the silver particle of GuttaFlow 2 did not result in a sealer with antibacterial effect against E. faecalis.
Background: Systemic vasculitis are a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by inflammation and necrosis of blood vessel walls. The etiology is not known, but geographic and environmental factors are implicated. Aim: To describe the clinical features of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) in a Chilean cohort of patients. Patients and methods: Retrospective review of the medical records of 123 patients with the diagnosis of systemic vasculitis (65 MPA and 58 WG), seen from 1990 to 2001. The diagnosis were made based on the American College of Rheumatology and Chapel Hill criteria. Results: The mean follow-up for MPA was 15 months (1-120) and for WG, 20 months (1-120). The median age (years) at diagnosis for MPA was 61 (19-82) and WG 50 (20-82). Gender distribution was similar in both groups (male: 68% and 57% respectively).The main clinical features in the MPA group were renal involvement (68%), peripheral nervous system involvement (57%), pulmonary hemorrhage (28%), and skin disease (32%). In the WG group were alveolar hemorrhage (62%), renal involvement (78%), paranasal sinus involvement (57%), and ocular disease (26%). In both, creatinine levels above 2.0 mg/dl were associated with a higher mortality (p< 0.01). ANCA by immunofluorescence was performed in 56 MPA patients (75% had pANCA, 4% had cANCA and 21% were ANCA negative) and in 55 WG patients (17% had pANCA, 79% had cANCA and 4% were ANCA negative). Global mortality was 18% and 17% respectively, and the most common causes of death were infections. Conclusions: The clinical features of our patients are similar to other published data. In our WG and MPA patients the main predictor for death was a serum creatinine above 2 mg/dl. (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 273-8)