Abstract Objective: In our clinic, we aimed to investigate the effect of preoperative risk factors and postoperative complications on reoperation and mortality in cases with Behçet's disease which presents very rare coronary artery involvement. Methods: Thirteen patients with Behçet's Disease who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting in our center between 2003 and 2015 were analyzed. We evaluated the clinical and laboratory findings, complications and mortality rates of our patients in light of the literature. Results: The mean age was 38.5 (30-55; 3 women). The mean time from onset of Behçet's disease to coronary artery disease was 4,7 (3-11) years. Fifty-four percent of the patients were asymptomatic. Coronary artery disease of these was exposed while peripheral vascular surgery was planned due to complications of Behçet's disease. Symptomatic patients presented angina pectoris (31%), acute coronary syndrome (8%) and arrhythmia (8%). In coronary pathology of patients, distal type obstruction (31%), aneurysm and pseudoaneurysm (31%), proximal segment thrombus (15%), chronic type stenosis and occlusions (31%) were present. Early mortality (15%) was due to acute myocardial infarction while the late mortality (15%) was due to cerebral and gastrointestinal bleeding. Reoperation was due to bleeding in one case on the 1st postoperative day and due to acute pulmonary embolism in another case in the 3rdpostoperative year. Conclusion: In Behçet's disease, coronary artery bypass grafting is a procedure with high mortality, especially in the acute period. The on-pump surgery technique in these cases can be safely performed for multiple bypasses and in patients above 40 years old.
Abstract Among all cystic echinococcosis cases, only 0.5%-2% exhibit a cardiac involvement. Only 10% of these become symptomatic. Considering the long time interval between the start of infestation and symptoms to occur, it is hard to diagnose cystic echinococcosis. When detected, even if it is asymptomatic, intramyocardial hydatid cyst requires surgical intervention due to risks of spontaneous rupture and anaphylaxis. In literature, no case of hydatid cyst located in the coronary arterial wall has been reported. Twenty-two-year-old male patient with previous history of pulmonary cystic echinococcosis was referred to us with typical symptoms of coronary artery disease. Coronary cineangiography revealed proximal left diagonal artery (LAD) occlusion. Pre-operative transthoracic echocardiography of the patient planned to undergo coronary artery bypass grafting unveiled an intracoronary calcified cystic mass. In operation, the calcified cystic mass with well-defined borders and size of 2x2 cm located within wall of proximal segment of the LAD artery was excised and double bypass with left internal thoracic artery (LITA) and great saphenous vein grafts to the LAD and first diagonal arteries, respectively, was done. Pathological analysis of the mass revealed it to be an inactive calcified hydatid cyst. Echinococcal IgG-ELISA test was positive. 12-week oral albendazole treatment (2x400 mg/day) was launched postoperatively and the patient was discharged on 7th postoperative day.
Abstract The lateral costal artery has sometimes been identified as the culprit for the "steal phenomenon" after coronary artery bypass grafting, besides being occasionally used for myocardial revascularization. Its branches make anastomoses with the internal thoracic artery through lateral intercostal arteries. We aim to report, on three cases, the clinical significance of a well-developed lateral costal artery after coronary artery bypass grafting. Two out of three patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery in our center between June 2010 and August 2017, applied to us with stable angina pectoris, while the third one was diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome after applying to the emergency department. In coronary cineangiography, in all three cases, a well-developed accessory vessel arising from the proximal 2.5 cm segment of the left internal thoracic artery coursed as far as the 6th rib was detected, and it was confirmed to be the lateral costal artery. A stable angina pectoris in two of the patients was thought to be the result of steal phenomenon caused by the well-developed lateral costal artery. In the two cases with stable angina pectoris the lateral costal artery was obliterated via coil embolization. In the other case with the proximal left anterior descending artery stenosis, before percutaneous coronary intervention, the lateral costal artery was obliterated via coil embolization and the occluded subclavian artery was stented. Routine visualization in cineangiography and satisfactory surgical exploration of the left internal thoracic artery could be very helpful to identify any possible accessory branch of the left internal thoracic artery like the lateral costal artery.
Abstract Objective: The effects of energy source on the maintenance of sinus rhythm and the contribution of demographic characteristics to the case selection in patients submitted to ablation performed concurrently with mitral valve surgery were analyzed. Methods: Cryothermal (n=42; 43.8%) and radiofrequency (n=54; 56.3%) energy were employed in 96 patients submitted to mitral valve replacement and Cox maze IV procedure. Patients were called for control visits between 15 days and 12 months after discharge. The causal relationship between recurrence of atrial fibrillation and factors such as left atrial diameter, C-reactive protein, hypertension, left ventricular ejection fraction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and body mass index was determined. Results: Maintenance rates of the sinus rhythm with radiofrequency and cryoablation were 97.6% and 96.3%, respectively, in the first postoperative month, whereas at the 12th postoperative month were 88.1% and 83.3%. No significant difference was found between groups in relation to the energy source. Sensitivity and specificity for left atrial diameter with a cut-off value of 50.5 mm were 85.7% and 70.7%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for C-reactive protein with a cut-off value of 12 mg/dL on the 15th postoperative day were 83.3% and 88.9%, respectively. The effect of body mass index on atrial fibrillation recurrence was 3.2 times. Sensitivity and specificity for left ventricular ejection fraction 37% cut-off value were 96.3% and 11.4%, respectively. Atrial fibrillation in hypertensive cases was 5.3 times more. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, recurrence of atrial fibrillation was 40%. The causal relation between recurrence of atrial fibrillation and the studied factors was established. Conclusion: Demographic characteristics have a significant impact on ablation efficiency, while the type of energy source does not.
Abstract Objective: The aims of this study were to determine whether the detection of preoperative clopidogrel resistance in patients undergoing cardiac surgery while using clopidogrel could play a guiding role in the prediction of postoperative excessive bleeding, transfusion requirements, and risks and to provide clinically significant data. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-two patients [median age: 59.4 (38-83) years; 38 females] undergoing emergency and elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries in our clinic were evaluated prospectively. Patients with multiple systemic diseases, other than diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT), were excluded. Patients receiving clopidogrel were also evaluated for clopidogrel resistance and grouped according to the results of this test. Assessments of platelet functions were performed by multiplate impedance aggregometry method and adenosine diphosphate test. Results: The use of postoperative fresh blood replacement and platelet transfusion was higher in patients receiving clopidogrel than in those not receiving it (P=0.001, P=0.018). DM, HT, myocardial infarction, and the number of presentation to the emergency room were significantly higher in patients receiving clopidogrel than in those not receiving it (P<0.05). No significant difference was determined between patients with and without clopidogrel resistance regarding the amount of bleeding during and after surgery, erythrocyte suspension and fresh-frozen plasma transfusion rates, preoperative troponin values, ejection fraction values, and length of hospital stays (P>0.05). Conclusion: We think that resistance studies in patients receiving clopidogrel before cardiac surgery are not efficient to predict bleeding and bleeding-related complications in patients undergoing emergency and elective CABG surgeries.