An experiment was carried out to establish mean bone quality values of the tibiae and femora of ostriches and to evaluate these bones. The right leg bones of 10 males and 10 female African Black ostriches were evaluated. Birds were radiographed immediately after slaughter (during bleeding), with the aid of a portable X-ray apparatus. The obtained radiographs were scanned and bone mineral density means were obtained using software. Bone strength, Seedor index, and dry matter percentage were evaluated and correlated to weight gain during the finishing period (3-13 months of age). Mean values of the evaluated bone quality traits, not previously found in literature, were established. There were no significant differences between males and females in performance or bone quality parameters. It was concluded that male and female ostriches present similar performance and bone quality at slaughter age.
An experiment was carried out with male and females broilers of two different commercial breeds to evaluate bone mineral density of the right femur head. A number of 600 one-day-old broilers were raised in an experimental poultry house up to 42 days of age at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil. After slaughter, three males and three females in each breed in each of the established gross scores were selected. Their femora heads were submitted to gross examination, and subsequently the thighs were submitted to the Veterinary Hospital for radiographic analysis. Femora were also submitted to bone resistance, Seedor index, and dry matter content analyses. All these bone quality characteristics were different between males and females, independent of breed. Breeds presented similar behavior. It was possible to establish correlations between bone quality parameters, and confidence intervals for bone mineral density values, correlating them to femoral degeneration score, which allows characterizing femoral head lesions by radiographic optical densitometry.
The aim of this study was to follow-up the physiological variations in the development of the bone tissue, associating them with the egg production curve. This study was carried out in the facilities of the Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia of the UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil. Twenty-three families of Ross broiler breeders were used, each family consisting of 13 females and 1 male, distributed in 23 pens of 5.0m² each. The management was that recommended by the genetic company manual (Agroceres Ross, 2003), with daily feeding until 6th week of age; and birds were fed according to a 5:2 schedule (5 days fed, 2 days of fasting) between 7 and 17 weeks of age, returning to daily feeding starting at 18 weeks of age. Birds did not receive afternoon calcium supplementation. On the fourth week of rearing, 84 females were removed for bone analyses of the right tibia and femur, using optical densitometry in radiographic images technique. These analyses were sequentially carried out in 4, 8, 12, 15, 20, 24, 30, 35, 42, 47, and 52 week-old birds. The egg production curve of the birds was followed-up and associated to bone mineral density results. For bone mineral density evaluation (BMD) birds were divided by weight categories as light, intermediate, or heavy within each data age. BMD values of the tibias were not influenced by weight range, but by the age at collection. On the other hand, interactions were found among femur BMD values and weight and age categories. There was no correlation between eggshell quality and femur BMD. A negative correlation (-0.15) was observed between tibia BMD and eggshell percentage. It was possible to conclude that the egg production has little influence on bone mineral density of the birds probably because there was no need of bone mineral mobilization during the production period, since the observed egg production was below that observed under commercial conditions.
This study was carried out at Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, Brazil, and evaluated bone quality in broiler breeders. Twenty-three families of Ross broiler breeders were housed in 5.0-m² pens. The families were comprised of 13 females and one male at the onset of the experimental period. The mean number of females per family was 9.34 at the end of the trial. The feeding program and management followed strain guidelines (Agroceres Ross, 2003). Bone analyses were performed in the right tibia and femur using optical radiographic densitometry at 4, 8, 12, 15, 20, 24, 30, 35, 42, 47 and 52 weeks of rearing. Trap nests were used to collect eggs from the breeders two weeks before and after the evaluation weeks. At each evaluation day, five birds were sacrificed after radiographs were taken and the tibias and femurs were collected to perform the following analyses: fatfree dry matter, ash percentage, bone resistance and Seedor index. Therefore, it was possible to establish correlations between bone quality and eggshell quality. Characteristics of bone quality were highly correlated to each other; on the other hand, there were no correlations between bone quality and external egg quality. In conclusion, there was no effect of egg production on egg quality, possibly because there was no reabsorption of bone minerals.
This study was carried out at Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the efficacy of four techniques in the assessment of tibial dyschondroplasia lesions in broiler chickens. Four hundred Cobb male chicks were reared from 1 to 39 days of age. At 39 days, forty birds were selected and tibial dyschondroplasia status was assessed by four different techniques: evaluation using the lixiscope, macroscopic examination, histological examination and bone mineral density assessment using optical radiographic densitometry. The efficacy of each technique to assess dyschondroplasia lesions in the tibial growth plate was determined in comparison to histology, which was considered to be 100% efficient. The correlation results between lixiscope analysis and histology were poor. Macroscopic scores and densitometry readings were highly correlated with histology scores, and it is considered that these techniques reliably reproduce the status of the growth plate.
This study was carried out at Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, UNESP, Botucatu-SP, Brazil. The aim was to establish the normal values of bone mineral density (BMD) expressed in millimeters of aluminum in the tibia of broiler chickens using optical densitometry of radiographs. Four hundred Cobb male chicks were reared from 1 to 40 days of age, when 40 of them were selected and the right femur-tibia articulation was radiographed. Radiographs were taken with the X-ray equipment calibrated for 45 kvp and 3.2 mAs and a focus-to-film distance of 90 cm. An aluminum phantom ASTM-6063 consisting of 20 ladder steps with graduate density was placed parallel to the area to be radiographed and used as a densitometry reference standard. Radiograph images were analyzed using the software ATHENA - SIA. The proximal growth plate of the right tibia epiphysis was used as the standard reading region. The inclination axis of the reading window was 0 and the window was 10 mm high and 40-45 mm wide, depending on the bone size. Optical densitometry values of the radiographs ranged from 1.46 to 1.77 mmAl, and the coefficient of variation was 9.93%. It was concluded that densitometry values beyond the range established in the present study might indicate the presence of bone alteration in the tibia of broilers.