ABSTRACT Introduction: Various preparations can be used in diagnostic cytology, including conventional smears (CS), liquid-based preparations (LBP) and cell block (CB). Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of CB preparations in addition to conventional cytological specimens in cases of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid nodules in diagnostic routine. Method: One hundred and six consecutive cases of FNAB routine thyroid nodules were independently evaluated by two cytopathologists (Obs1 and Obs2) on the cellularity of SM, LBP and CB. Results: The cellularity was rich/moderate in 56 (52.8%) CBs for both observers. LBP showed rich/moderate cellularity in 86 (81.1%) cases for Obs1 and 91 (85.8%) for Obs2; among these cases, CB showed the same cellularity in 52/86 (60.4%) cases for Obs1 and 54/91 (59.3%) for Obs2. SM showed rich/moderate cellularity in 86 (81.1%) cases for Obs1 and 87 (82%) for Obs2; among these cases, CB showed the same cellularity in 48/86 (55.8%) cases for Obs1 and 54/87 (62%) for Obs2. CB cellularity was higher than that in LBP in only five cases for Obs1 and three for Obs2. LBP was assessed as low/absent in only five (4.7%) and six (5.6%) cases for Obs1 and Obs2, respectively. Conclusion: CB can be routinely used as additional specimen in material obtained from thyroid nodules FNAB, without adversely affecting LBP specimens, enabling the conduction of further immunohistochemical and molecular studies.
RESUMO Introdução: Vários preparados podem ser utilizados na citologia diagnóstica, como esfregaços (SM), preparados do tipo meio líquido (ML) e emblocado em parafina ou cell block (CB). Objetivo: Avaliar a qualidade do CB, além dos espécimes citológicos convencionais, em casos de biópsia aspirativa por agulha fina (BAAF) de nódulos de tireoide na rotina diagnóstica. Método: Cento e seis casos consecutivos de BAAF de nódulos de tireoide foram avaliados independentemente por dois citopatologistas (Obs1 e Obs2) quanto à celularidade dos preparados de SM, ML e CB. Resultados: A celularidade foi rica/moderada em 56 (52,8%) CB para ambos observadores. ML mostrou celularidade rica/moderada em 86 (81,1%) casos para o Obs1 e 91 (85,8%) para o Obs2; desses casos, CB mostrou a mesma celularidade em 52/86 (60,4%) casos para o Obs1 e 54/91 (59,3%) para o Obs2. SM mostrou celularidade rica/moderada em 86 (81,1%) casos para o Obs1 e 87 (82%) para o Obs2; desses casos, CB apresentou a mesma celularidade em 48/86 (55,8%) casos para o Obs1 e 54/87 (62%) para o Obs2. A celularidade do CB foi maior do que a do ML em apenas cinco casos para o Obs1 e três para o Obs2. ML foi avaliado como escasso/ausente em apenas cinco (4,7%) e seis (5,6%) casos para os Obs1 e Obs2, respectivamente. Conclusão: CB pode ser utilizado rotineiramente como espécime adicional no material obtido de BAAF de nódulos de tireoide, sem prejuízo dos espécimes de meio líquido, o que possibilita a realização de estudo complementar, principalmente imuno-histoquímico e molecular.
Abstract Background: Numerous genetic syndromes associated with heart disease and ocular manifestations have been described. However, a compilation and a summarization of these syndromes for better consultation and comparison have not been performed yet. Objective: The objective of this work is to systematize available evidence in the literature on different syndromes that may cause congenital heart diseases associated with ocular changes, focusing on the types of anatomical and functional changes. Method: A systematic search was performed on Medline electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs) of articles published until January 2016. Eligibility criteria were case reports or review articles that evaluated the association of ophthalmic and cardiac abnormalities in genetic syndrome patients younger than 18 years. Results: The most frequent genetic syndromes were: Down Syndrome, Velo-cardio-facial / DiGeorge Syndrome, Charge Syndrome and Noonan Syndrome. The most associated cardiac malformations with ocular findings were interatrial communication (77.4%), interventricular communication (51.6%), patent ductus arteriosus (35.4%), pulmonary artery stenosis (25.8%) and tetralogy of Fallot (22.5%). Conclusion: Due to their clinical variability, congenital cardiac malformations may progress asymptomatically to heart defects associated with high morbidity and mortality. For this reason, the identification of extra-cardiac characteristics that may somehow contribute to the diagnosis of the disease or reveal its severity is of great relevance.
Resumo Fundamento: O número de síndromes genéticas descritas que apresentam alguma forma de cardiopatia e manifestações oculares associadas é grande. Contudo, estas síndromes ainda não foram reunidas e sintetizadas para melhor consulta e comparação. Objetivo: O objetivo deste trabalho é sistematizar a literatura, avaliando evidências disponíveis sobre síndromes que cursam com cardiopatia congênita associada a alterações oculares, salientando os tipos de alterações anatômicas e funcionais descritas. Métodos: Dois pesquisadores independentes fizeram uma busca sistemática utilizando as bases eletrônicas Medline (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Lilacs), de trabalhos publicados até o mês de janeiro de 2016. Os critérios de elegibilidade utilizados pelos autores incluíram somente artigos publicados sob a forma de relatos de caso ou revisão, que abordassem a associação de alterações oftalmológicas e cardiológicas em pacientes menores de 18 anos e que apresentassem alguma síndrome genética. Resultados: As síndromes genéticas mais frequentes foram: Síndrome de Down, Síndrome Velo-cardio-facial / DiGeorge, Síndrome de Charge e Síndrome de Noonan. Entre as malformações cardíacas, a comunicação interatrial (77,4%), a comunicação interventricular (51.6%), a persistência do canal arterial (35,4%), estenose da artéria pulmonar (25,8%) e a tetralogia de Fallot (22,5%) foram as mais associadas com achados oculares. Conclusão: Devido à sua variedade clínica, as malformações cardíacas congênitas revelam defeitos que evoluem de maneira assintomática até aqueles que provocam grande morbimortalidade. Dessa forma, encontrar características extra-cardíacas que, de alguma maneira, possam auxiliar no diagnóstico da doença ou revelar a gravidade dessa enfermidade tornam-se de grande relevância.
ABSTRACT: Determining nutrient uptake and accumulation rates by cotton crops is important to define management strategies, especially for transgenic varieties, which are cultivated using high-technology approaches that require substantial investment to maximize yield. Currently in Brazil, the states of Bahia and Mato Grosso are responsible for 84.4 % of the total cotton growing area. In the present study, two trials were conducted in 2013, one that involved planting FM 940 GLT, FM 980 GLT, and FM 913 GLT varieties in the state of Bahia and the other which involved FM 940 GLT and FM 980 GLT varieties in the state of Mato Grosso. The aim of the two trials was to represent the two regions that currently encompass the largest areas of cotton cultivation. Tissue samples, consisting of leaves, stems, and reproductive components, were collected eleven times during the crop cycle for determination of nutrient content and shoot dry matter. After weighing, plant tissue samples were dried and ground to determine nutrient contents. Because there were no overall differences in nutrient contents and biomass accumulation of the varieties during the crop cycle, we undertook joint analysis of the data from all varieties at each site. Favorable climatic conditions in Bahia promoted plant biomass production that was twice as much as plants grown in Mato Grosso, with cotton yields of 6.2 and 3.8 t ha−1 of lint and seed, respectively. The maximum nutrient accumulation occurred between 137-150 days after emergence (DAE) for N; 143-148 for P; 172-185 for K; 100 for Ca; 144-149 for Mg; and 153-158 for S. Maximum uptake ranged from 218-362 kg ha−1 N; 26-53 kg ha−1 P; 233-506 kg ha−1 K; 91-202 kg ha−1 Ca; 28-44 kg ha−1 Mg; and 19-61 kg ha−1 S. On average, the sites revealed nutrient export of 14, 2, 23, 3, 2, and 2 kg t−1 of lint and seed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S, respectively, with little variation among sites. Extraction of nutrients per area by cotton vary among sites, but nutritional requirement of cotton per unit of lint and seeds is similar independently of yield potential.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze glucose transporter 1 expression patterns in malignant tumors of various cell types and evaluate their diagnostic value by immunohistochemistry. INTRODUCTION: Glucose is the major source of energy for cells, and glucose transporter 1 is the most common glucose transporter in humans. Glucose transporter 1 is aberrantly expressed in several tumor types. Studies have implicated glucose transporter 1 expression as a prognostic and diagnostic marker in tumors, primarily in conjunction with positron emission tomography scan data. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for glucose transporter 1 was performed in tissue microarray slides, comprising 1955 samples of malignant neoplasm from different cell types. RESULTS: Sarcomas, lymphomas, melanomas and hepatoblastomas did not express glucose transporter 1. Fortyseven per cent of prostate adenocarcinomas were positive, as were 29% of thyroid, 10% of gastric and 5% of breast adenocarcinomas. Thirty-six per cent of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck were positive, as were 42% of uterine cervix squamous cell carcinomas. Glioblastomas and retinoblastomas showed membranous glucose transporter 1 staining in 18.6% and 9.4% of all cases, respectively. Squamous cell carcinomas displayed membranous expression, whereas adenocarcinomas showed cytoplasmic glucose transporter 1 expression. CONCLUSION: Glucose transporter 1 showed variable expression in various tumor types. Its absence in sarcomas, melanomas, hepatoblastomas and lymphomas suggests that other glucose transporters mediate the glycolytic pathway in these tumors. The data suggest that glucose transporter 1 is a valuable immunohistochemical marker that can be used to identify patients for evaluation by positron emission tomography scan. The function of cytoplasmic glucose transporter 1 in adenocarcinomas must be further examined.