Abstract The uniformity of water application is an important factor in the evaluation of sprinkler irrigation systems. This uniformity depends on the type of sprinkler and its operating conditions, such as the arrangement and spacing between the sprinklers in the area; velocity and wind direction during the period of water application and the pressure variation of the irrigation system. The objective of this study was to model, analyze and compare the structure of spatial dependence, as well as the spatial variability of the water depths applied by a sprinkler irrigation system with compensating and non-compensating sprinklers, using geostatistical methods and measurements of accuracy or similarity between the applied water depth maps. The experiment was carried out in an agricultural area, in the city of Cascavel-Paraná-Brazil. A total area of 10 × 10 m was used, with 04 compensating and 04 non-compensating sprinklers installed at a height of 1.5 m. For each type of sprinkler, water levels were measured in 100 collectors spaced 1 × 1 m in the study area in 32 trials. On each test sprinkling was carried out for one hour. The conditions of wind, temperature and air humidity were evaluated at the beginning of each test and at 10-minute intervals with a climatological station. As the geostatistical analysis showed the existence of directional trends, the coordinates were incorporated as covariates to the linear spatial model in the study of the spatial dependence of the average depth of the irrigation water for the two types of sprinklers. The spatial dependence structure that best fits the data when using the compensating sprinklers was the Gaussian model and when the non-compensating sprinklers were used, it was the exponential model. The spatial variability maps of average irrigation water depth (mm) of the trials, obtained by universal kriging, revealed that for both sprinklers there was an increase in the mean level average values in the northwest-southeast direction (135° in the azimuth system) in the area under study, influenced by wind direction and velocity during the execution of the experiment.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of congenital heart defects in patients with Down syndrome in the municipality of Pelotas, Brazil, describing the most frequent types and assessing the associated factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including children with Down syndrome who were born and lived in Pelotas from January 2000 to December 2005. Data were collected by means of home interviews with mothers or guardians. Univariate and bivariate analyses were carried out to analyze the factors related to congenital heart defect. RESULTS: Forty-seven mothers of patients with Down syndrome were interviewed. Twenty-two (46.8%) of the patients had a diagnosis of congenital heart defect. Of them, 28% had early cardiac evaluation before 3 months of life. The most frequent heart defect was interatrial communication (17%); atrioventricular septal defect affected five patients. Bivariate analysis between the outcome congenital heart defect and the predicting factors maternal age, paternal age, parents' and child's skin color, presence of other malformations and child's sex showed that the associations were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of Down syndrome and congenital heart defects in our region is similar to the rates found by other authors; therefore, we highlight the importance of diagnostic suspicion and early referral by pediatricians to cardiac evaluation. Another relevant aspect is the small number of patients who underwent karyotype testing. In addition, the number of associated malformations was lower than that found by other authors.
OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de cardiopatias congênitas em portadores da síndrome de Down na cidade de Pelotas (RS), descrevendo os tipos mais frequentes e avaliando os fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que incluiu crianças portadoras de síndrome de Down nascidas e residentes em Pelotas no período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2005. Os dados foram obtidos através de entrevistas realizadas nos domicílios dos pacientes, com as mães ou seus familiares legais. Para o estudo dos fatores relacionados à presença de cardiopatia congênita, foram realizadas análises univariada e bivariada. RESULTADOS: Foram entrevistadas 47 mães de pacientes com síndrome de Down, sendo que 22 (46,8%) pacientes apresentavam diagnóstico de cardiopatia congênita. Destes, 28% receberam avaliação cardiológica precoce, antes dos 3 meses de vida. A cardiopatia mais frequente foi a comunicação interatrial (17%); o defeito do septo atrioventricular ocorreu em cinco pacientes. A análise bivariada entre o desfecho presença de cardiopatia congênita e os fatores preditores idade materna, idade paterna, cor dos pais e da criança, presença de outras malformações e sexo da criança mostraram que as associações não foram estatisticamente significativas. CONCLUSÕES: As prevalências de síndrome de Down e de cardiopatia congênita em nossa região apresentam-se semelhantes às encontradas por outros autores, ressaltando-se a importância da suspeita diagnóstica e do encaminhamento precoce por parte dos pediatras para avaliação cardiológica. Destaca-se também o baixo número de pacientes que realizaram cariótipo. Além disso, o número de malformações associadas foi inferior ao encontrado por outros autores.