Seriniquinone is a natural quinone isolated from a rare marine bacterium of the genus Serinicoccus. This secondary metabolite has been shown to have anticancer properties, which has raised attention of the scientific community. In this short report, we present the first investigation of the gas-phase chemistry fragmentation reactions of seriniquinone in electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), to be further applied in pharmacokinetics and metabolism studies. All the proposals herein were supported by computational chemistry.
Brevianamides A and C are isomeric cyclic peptides with several reported biological activities, isolated from diverse microorganisms. Currently, there has been no previous investigation of brevianamide fragmentation utilizing electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In this work experiments were carried out in the positive mode using two different spectrometers (low and high resolution) with an ESI source. Computational chemistry studies helped identify the protonation sites based upon atomic charges, proton affinities and molecular orbitals, computed using the B3LYP/6-31++G (d,p) model. The data suggests that the presence of the allylic position of the lactamic N in brevianamides C governs its fragmentation pathways. Distinguishing between brevianamides A and C using positive ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI(+)MS/MS) is made possible by the spectral difference of each isomer and offers an alternative to other spectroscopic techniques.
Former bioactivity-guided analysis of the marine invertebrate Eudistoma vannamei led to the isolation of staurosporine derivatives, which revealed strong cytotoxic activity against several human cancer cell lines. The occurrence of such alkaloids in E. vannamei may be correlated to the presence of associated biota, such as Streptomyces bacteria. In agreement to this hypothesis, marine microorganisms associated with E. vannamei were recovered and cultured, leading to a total of 84 isolated bacterial strains. Gas phase fragmentation reactions of staurosporine and derivatives were systematically studied and the analyzed results further supported by computational chemistry studies. The resulting fragment patterns were used to search for the presence of different derivatives in extracts of isolated microorganisms, thereby using LC-MS/MS analysis in MRM mode. These results evidenced that one isolated Streptomyces sp. was able to generate staurosporine, while none of the hydroxy-7-oxo derivatives were detected. Finally, significant cytotoxic activity against human cancer lines was observed for one of the extracts.
O estudo fitoquímico do invertebrado marinho Eudistoma vannamei levou ao isolamento de derivados do alcalóide estaurosporina, que apresentaram uma potente atividade citotóxica contra linhagens de células humanas de câncer. A ocorrência destes alcalóides pode ser correlacionada a presença de microorganismos associados ao animal, como por exemplo bactérias do gênero Streptomyces. Visando confirmar essa hipótese, precedeu-se o isolamento e cultivo dos microrganismos associados com E. vannamei (84 cepas isoladas). Estudos sistemáticos das reações de fragmentação da estaurosporina e derivados, apoiados pela química computacional, permitiram definir os principais padrões de fragmentação. Esses padrões foram utilizados em análises exploratórias por LC-MS/MS visando pesquisar a presença de derivados de estaurosporinas nos microrganismos isolados. Esse procedimento permitiu identificar estaurosporina em uma espécie de Streptomyces, contudo não com o mesmo padrão de oxidação da molécula ativa isolada no extrato da Ascídia. Finalmente, o extrato dessa cepa mostrou também significativa atividade citotóxica contra linhagens de câncer.
Two mycosporine (MAAs), containing an extra acid function, were analyzed by nanospray and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In contrast to the previous studies it is demonstrated that no significant characteristic methyl radical loss occurred in positive mode. The fragmentation pathway in negative mode was also proposed in this work, along with theoretical calculations to characterize the site of protonation.
No presente estudo, duas micosporinas (MAAs) contendo um segundo ácido carboxílico foram submetidas à fragmentação em eletrospray e nanospray em diferentes equipamentos. Em contraste com resultados anteriores, a eliminação de radical metila no modo positivo de análise foi um processo minoritário de fragmentação. Neste trabalho apresentamos também a via de fragmentação destas substâncias em modo negativo e cálculos teóricos para caracterizar os sítios de protonação.
The field of application of mass spectrometry (MS) has increased considerably due to the development of ionization techniques. Other factors that have stimulated the use of MS are the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and sequential mass spectrometry (MSn) techniques. However, the interpretation of the MS/MS and MSn data may lead to speculative conclusions. Thus, various quantum chemical methods have been applied for obtaining high quality thermochemical data in gas phase. In this review, we show some applications of computational quantum chemistry to understand the formation and fragmentation of gaseous ions of organic compounds in a MS analysis.