Abstract Each year, the consumption of vegetable oils increases gradually. Some oils, such as chia, sesame, and quinoa, are consumed due to the nutritional properties and health promoters that have been recognized in their components. Based on this premise, the present study aimed to characterize chia (Salvia hispanica), sesame (Sesamum inducum), and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) oils, in order to enable their applications in the development of new food products. Chia oil presented higher degradation, as it stood out with higher amounts of free fatty acids (4.46%) and peroxide value (18.35 meq/kg). It is an oil that is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (75.47%), and, consequently, with high refractive index (1,475) and iodine value (192.86 g/100 g). Quinoa oil stood out for its higher oxidative stability (17.55 h) and higher amount of phenolic compounds (190.84 mg/100 g). Sesame and quinoa oils showed no significant difference for carotenoids, but sesame oil had higher content of total tocopherols (656.50 mg/kg). Thus, the oils can be used in technological processes and/ or in the formulation of new food products, in order to their increase the nutritional value.
ABSTRACT The main objective of the present work was to measure the total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity of Portulaca oleracea L. extract, besides evaluating the oxidative stability and phytochemical compound retention present in soybean oil plus synthetic (TBHQ and BHT) and natural (Portulaca oleracea L. extract) antioxidants. The treatments soybean oil (SO), soybean oil plus 100 mg/kg TBHQ (TBHQ), soybean oil plus 100 mg/kg BHT (BHT), and soybean oil plus 100 mg/kg extract (Extract) were subjected to thermo-oxidation at 180 ºC/5 h. The extract presented 99.5 mg EAG/100 g of total phenolic compounds and 84.6, 35.5, and 1.8µM Trolox/100 g of antioxidant activity to DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid system, and FRAP, respectively. The oxidative stability for the Extract treatment was inferior to TBHQ, which showed the longest induction period (7.6 h). After heating, TBHQ and Extract treatments presented higher capacity of tocopherol and phytosterol retention, reaching values over 88 and 87%, respectively. Similar percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in SO and Extract treatments. The purslane extract in the 100 mg/kg concentration reduced the alterations suffered by soybean oil after heating and it can be used as a natural substitute for synthetic antioxidants.
RESUMO Este trabalho teve como principais objetivos medir o teor de compostos fenólicos totais e a atividade antioxidante do extrato de Portulaca oleracea L., além de avaliar a estabilidade oxidativa e a retenção dos compostos fitoquímicos presentes no óleo de soja adicionado de antioxidantes sintéticos (TBHQ e BHT) e naturais (Extrato de Portulaca oleracea L.). Os tratamentos: óleo de soja (OS), óleo de soja adicionado de 100 mg/kg TBHQ (TBHQ), óleo de soja adicionado de 100 mg/kg BHT (BHT) e óleo de soja adicionado de 100 mg/kg extrato (Extrato) foram submetidos à termoxidação a 180 oC, por cinco horas. O extrato apresentou 99,5 mg EAG/100 g de compostos fenólicos totais e 84,6%, 35,5% e 1,8 µM Trolox/100 g de atividade antioxidante para DPPH, sistema β-caroteno/ácido linoleico e FRAP, respectivamente. A estabilidade oxidativa do tratamento Extrato foi inferior à do TBHQ, que apresentou o maior período de indução (7,6 h). Após aquecimento, os tratamentos TBHQ e Extrato apresentaram maior capacidade de retenção de tocoferóis e fitosteróis, atingindo valores acima de 88 e 87%, respectivamente. Percentagens similares de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados foram encontradas nos tratamentos OS e Extrato. O extrato de beldroega na concentração 100 mg/kg foi capaz de reduzir as alterações sofridas pelo óleo de soja após aquecimento e pode ser utilizado como substituto natural de antioxidantes sintéticos.
Abstract The etiopathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP) is still not fully elucidated, and it is believed that its development could involve a neuro-immune-endocrine profile. This systematic review investigated the relationship between cytokines, cortisol, and nitric oxide (NO) in the saliva of OLP patients. An electronic search was conducted in Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, LIVIVO, and Web of Science databases with no restriction of language to identify studies published up to December 2017. Data extraction was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 140 articles were retrieved, and 32 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria (cytokines = 17; cortisol = 9; NO = 6). The most studied cytokines in the saliva of OLP patients were interleukins IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-ү, and TNF-α, which were higher in OLP patients than in healthy controls (HC). Salivary cortisol was found to be higher in OLP than in HC in most (55.5%) of the selected studies, and all studies related to NO found higher levels of this marker in OLP than in HC. Despite controversial results, our review suggests that OLP patients have an increased inflammatory response, as indicated by the proinflammatory profile of salivary cytokines. In addition, we conclude that salivary cytokine and NO measurements may have significant diagnostic and prognostic potential for monitoring disease activity and therapeutic responses in OLP.
ABSTRACT The oxidative stability of linseed (L), cotton (A), and coconut (C) oils, as well as of linseed:cotton (LA), linseed:coconut (LC), and linseed:cotton:coconut (LAC) compound oils was evaluated under accelerated storage at 60°C/20 days. Coconut oil showed to be rather stable, mainly due to low levels of peroxides, conjugated dienes, ρ-anisidine, and long induction period. In addition, along with cotton oil, it improved the stability of linseed oil in the formulation of LAC compound oil. As to fatty acid profile, the compound oils showed to be composed mainly by unsaturated fatty acids. Cotton and coconut oils presented higher retention of total phytosterols, 78.87 and 76.16%, respectively, after 20 days of storage, when compared to linseed oil. The highest retention of total tocopherols at the end of storage was observed in LA (90.81%). In relation to antioxidant activity, by the DPPH method, with the increase in storage time, a reduction in the antioxidant substances of linseed, LC, and LAC oils was observed. Through the FRAP method, oscillations were observed, especially in linseed and compound oils. Although the oils were degraded over time, it was possible to verify that cotton and coconut oils contributed to increase the stability of linseed oil, which, in turn, raised the levels of coconut oil bioactive compounds.