ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additives (PA) and organic acids (OA), alone or in combination, on the performance, intestinal histomorphometry and lipid oxidation, and immune responses of broiler chickens. In this experiment, 820 one-day-old chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, with four replicates of 41 broilers each. The dietary treatments consisted of a control diet with no PA or OA (CD); CD with OA and no PA (CD+OA-PA); CD with PA and no OA (CD+PA-CD); CDwith both PA and OA (CD+PA+CD); and CD + avilamycin + monesin sodium. Broiler performance was not affected by the alternative feed additives, except from 1 to 21 days, when broilers fed the CD or CD+PA+OA diets showed higher body weight gain than those fed the CD with only OA. The broilers fed the diet containing avilamycin and monensin presented better performance. The supplementation of PA and OA increased bursalcortical area on21 and 42 days post-hatch. On 21 days post-hatch, broilers fed the AGP diet presented higher ileal villus height than those fed the control diet. The pH values of the jejunum content were reduced on the OA-fed chickens. Higher villus height and crypt depth were found in the alternative additive-fed chickens on 7 days post-hatch. On 42 days post-hatch, the percentage of the bursal cortex increased in PA-fed broilers; however, there was no increase in antibody production. The PA-fed chickens presented lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in the small intestine. The dietary supplementation of phytogenic additives, individually or in combination associated with organic acids, does not affect broiler live performance or intestinal histomorphometry; however, it enhances immune responses and intestinal quality.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the supplementation of vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids to the diet of Leghorn layers on yolk color and on yolk lipid oxidation of eggs stored at room temperature for 10 days. Sixty eggs laid by commercial white layers (Lohmann LSL) fed diets supplemented with different vegetable oils were used. Hens were fed one of the following treatment diets: conventional diet with no oil inclusion (T1); T1 diet with 2.5% linseed oil inclusion (T2); T1 diet with 2.5% canola oil (T3); T1 diet with 2.5% soybean oil (T4); T1 with 5.0% linseed oil (T5); T1 diet with 5.0% canola oil (T6); T1 diet with 5.0% soybean oil (T7); T1 diet with 2.5% linseed oil + 2.5% soybean oil (T8); T1 diet with 2.5% canola oil + 2.5% soybean oil (T9); and T1 diet with 2.5% linseed oil + 2.5% canola oil (T10). Eggs were evaluated as to yolk lipid peroxidation (TBARS values) and yolk color, as determined by colorimetry and subjective sensorial analysis. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level. It was concluded that the inclusion of vegetable oils in commercial white layer diets does not significantly change egg yolk pigmentation, as colorimetrically evaluated. However, when subjectively assessed, the yolks of the eggs laid by hens fed diets supplemented with vegetable oils tend to be paler. The yolks of the eggs laid by layers fed diets containing sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids presented high lipid oxidation, particularly when compared with those derived from layers fed the diet with no oil supplementation.
Among the different feed additives studied in poultry production, clinoptilolite, an aluminosilicate capable of adsorbing harmful substances and of improving live performance and egg and meat quality, was evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dietary clinoptilolite and calcium levels on the performance and egg quality of layers. In total, 576 layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 x 4 factorial arrangement (three calcium levels - 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and four clinoptilolite levels - 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%), with 12 treatments of six replicates of eight birds each. The experiment included four 28-d cycles. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. There was a significant interaction between the evaluated factors for egg production and feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and egg mass. The lowest calcium level resulted in worse performance and eggshell quality. Clinoptilolite levels affected albumen and yolk content. It was concluded that up to 0.50% inclusion of clinoptilolite in layer diets does not benefit layer performance or eggshell quality. Although the inclusion of only 2.5% calcium in layer diets is not recommended, it is possible to add 3.1% because it promoted similar results as the recommended level of 3.7%.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of clinoptilolite and calcium levels on uric acid and calcium blood profile and bone quality of commercial layers. A total of 576 birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x4 factorial arrangement (calcium levels of 2.5, 3.1, or 3.7% and clinoptilolite levels of 0.0, 0.15, 0.25, or 0.50%), into 12 treatments with six replicates of eight birds per cage (experimental unit). The experimental period was 112 days. The experimental diets were based on corn and soybean meal. Results were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by the test of Tukey at 5% significance level using SISVAR statistical package. Blood uric acid was significantly influenced by the interaction of the evaluated factors. Clinoptilolite levels significantly increased blood calcium levels. There was no effect of dietary calcium levels on any of the evaluated characteristics. It was concluded that feeding layers with up to 0.50% clinoptilolite does not benefit blood uric acid and calcium concentrations and does not affect their bone quality. When layers at the end of the first laying cycle are fed ad libitum and present 119.50g/hen/day average feed intake, 3.1% dietary calcium promotes 3.7g/hen/day calcium intake, which is sufficient to maintain adequate calcium blood levels and bone quality.
This experiment aimed at evaluating the effects of the supplementation of different vegetable oils at different levels to the diet of commercial layers on egg cholesterol levels and nutritional composition (proteins, total solids, lipids, and ashes) for 112 days. Birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design with 10 treatments (T1 - control; T2 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil; T3 - inclusion of 2.5% canola oil; T4 - inclusion of 2.5% soybean oil; T5 - inclusion of 5% rapeseed oil; T6 - inclusion of 5% canola oil; T7 - inclusion of 5% soybean oil; T8 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil + 2.5% soybean oil; T9 - inclusion 2.5% canola oil + 2.5% soybean oil; T10 - inclusion of 2.5% rapeseed oil + 2.5% canola oil) of six replicates of eight birds each, totaling 480 birds. Yolk cholesterol levels and nutritional composition were determined on days 20, 60 and 112 days of the experimental period. Data obtained during the experimental period were submitted to analysis of variance. Egg yolks produced by layer fed oils presented lower cholesterol levels after 20 days of inclusion in the experimental diets. On days 60 and 112, cholesterol levels were higher. It was concluded that supplementing layer diets with vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids does not change the nutritional composition of egg yolks. The supply of diets containing oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids does not reduce yolk cholesterol content.
Aiming at evaluating the influence of cyclic temperatures on the performance and egg quality of Japanese quails an experiment was carried out with 480 birds after egg production peak. Birds were housed in a bioclimatic chamber with automatic temperature control that contained two rooms, one maintained at thermoneutral temperature (21 ºC) and the other adjusted for the tested cyclic temperatures (24, 27, 30, 33 and 36 ºC at a time). Each room had a battery of five floors and ten cages, with a capacity of 24 birds per cage, totaling 240 birds per battery. Birds were fed iso-nutritious and iso-caloric diets. Data obtained under the tested cyclic temperatures were compared with those obtained under thermoneutral temperature. At the end of each experimental period (14 days) performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated. A completely randomized experimental design with two treatments (thermoneutral temperature and tested temperature) and ten replicates of 24 birds each. Cyclic increases of 27 ºC and higher in environmental temperature negatively affected bird performance, with reduced feed intake and consequent reductions in egg weight and mass. A cyclic increase of the environmental temperature to 36 ºC reduced the percentage of saleable eggs and egg production.
A total of 405 23-week-old ISA® Brown layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a factorial arrangement with nine treatments consisting of three dietary calcium levels (3.5, 3.75, and 4.5%) and three limestone particle sizes (100% fine limestone (FL), 70% FL + 30% coarse limestone (CL) and 50% (FL) + 50% (CL)), with nine replicates of five birds per cage. The following parameters were evaluated: percentage of lay, defective eggs, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (per kg eggs and per dozen eggs), and mortality. Dietary Ca levels significantly affected lay, with birds fed diets containing 4.5% calcium producing less eggs as compared to those fed 3.0 and 3.75% Ca. Egg production linearly decreased as dietary Ca levels increased, but blood Ca levels (mg/L) increased in 28-week-old birds. The interaction of dietary Ca levels and limestone particle sizes resulted in a reduction in tibial ash Ca content as dietary Ca levels increased and as fine limestone was replaced by coarse limestone. It is concluded that a dietary Ca level of 3.75% and 100% fine particle limestone are required to maintain adequate egg production and available Ca blood level.
This study evaluated the effect of dietary calcium levels and limestone particle size distribution on first-cycle layer performance and egg quality. A completely randomized experimental design in 4x3 factorial arrangement (four Ca levels - 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5%; and three limestone particle size distributions - 100% fine, 50% fine and 50% coarse, 30% fine and 70% coarse) was applied, totaling 12 treatments with six replicates of eight birds each. The treatments did not influence the most of evaluated performance and internal and external egg quality parameters. However, limestone particle size distribution quadratically affected with percentage of defective eggs, with the lowest percentage obtained with the distribution 61.75% fine limestone and 38.25% coarse limestone. Increasing dietary Ca levels significantly increased eggshell weight per surface area and the percentage of Ca excreted in the feces. It was concluded that the combination of the highest dietary Ca level (4.5%) with 50% replacement of fine-particle limestone by coarse limestone results in better eggshell and increases the number of marketable eggs.
This study aimed at studying alternative methods to induce molting and to compare them with the conventional forced-molting method (fasting). In the experiment, 420 70-week-old layers were used. The total experimental period was 140 days. Molting was induced during the first 28 days, when birds were submitted to the experimental treatments, and bird performance and egg quality parameters were determined during 112 subsequent days. A completely randomized experimental design was applied in a 5x2 factorial arrangement of five feed restriction regimes (0, 15, 30, 45, or 60g feed/bird/day) and with or without the addition of coarse-particle limestone to the feed, with seven replicates of six birds each. Egg quality was evaluated at the end of each 28-day period for three consecutive days, using three eggs per experimental unit (21 eggs/treatment), with a total of 210 eggs. It was concluded that feeding 15g feed/bird/day to induce molting is feasible, as birds submitted to this treatment presented similar performance and better egg quality than those submitted to fasting during molting. The use of coarse-particle limestone during molting did not influence post-molting bird performance or egg quality.
This experiment studied the effect of four calcium (3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5%) and four available phosphorus levels (0.25, 0.30, 0.35, and 0.40%) in the diet of semi-heavy commercial layers after molting. Hisex Brown® layers between 90 and 108 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 4x4 factorial arrangement with 16 treatments of five replicates of eight birds each. mortality, egg production, feed intake, egg mass, average egg weight, calcium and phosphorus intake, feed conversion ratio (per dozen eggs and per kg eggs), eggshell percentage and thickness, eggshell strength, eggshell weight per surface area (ESWSA), yolk percentage and color, albumen percentage, albumen and yolk heights, and blood and excreta calcium and phosphorus concentrations. There was no interaction (P>0.05) between dietary Ca and avP for any of the studied parameters. There were linear increases in Ca intake (P<0.01), eggshell percentage (P<0.05); ESWSA (P<0.05); yolk color (P<0.05); Ca concentration in the blood (P<0.05) and excreta (P<0.01) as dietary Ca level increased. The intake of avP linearly increased (P<0.01) with dietary avP levels. The remaining parameters were not influenced (P>0.05) by dietary Ca and avP levels. The diet containing 4.5% calcium improved feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and eggshell quality. The lowest avP level fed (0.25%) is sufficient to maintain the performance and the egg quality of semi-heavy commercial layers after molting.