Abstract Childhood hypertension is becoming more common with the increasing numbers of child obesity, which has encouraged new studies to identify a good anthropometric marker for high blood pressure levels. The objective this study was to identify the best anthropometric predictor of risk of hypertension in children between 8-10 years of age. The Children were evaluated for socioeconomic status and their blood pressure (BP), weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat (PBF) were measured. The study included 445 children, of which 50.1% were females. The prevalence of obesity defined by body mass index (BMI) was 14.6%. Increased BP was found in 3.4% and 2.2% of the children, considering the pre-hypertension and hypertension classifications respectively. The arithmetic mean of BP value correlated significantly with BMI, WC and PBF. After height control, the correlations that were maintained significant were between WC and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and between WC and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The variable with the highest predictive power of the occurrence of hypertension was WC. The results indicate that, in this population of children between 8 and 10 years old, WC is a measurement of higher value in predicting increased BP.
Resumo A hipertensão na infância está aumentando com a epidemia de obesidade infantil, o que tem incentivado estudos para identificar um bom marcador antropométrico dos níveis pressóricos aumentados. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar o melhor preditor antropométrico de risco de hipertensão arterial em crianças entre 8 e 10 anos de idade. Foi realizada avaliação socioeconômica e aferidos pressão arterial (PA), peso, estatura, circunferência da cintura (CC) e percentual de gordura corporal (%GC). Das 445 crianças que participaram do estudo, 50,1% eram do sexo feminino. A prevalência de obesidade definida pelo índice de massa corporal (IMC) foi 14,6%. A PA aumentada foi observada em 3,4% e 2,2% das crianças, considerando as classificações pré-hipertensão e hipertensão, respectivamente. As médias dos valores pressóricos correlacionaram-se significativamente com IMC, CC, e %GC e, após o controle da estatura, as correlações que se mantiveram significativas foram entre CC e pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e CC e pressão arterial diastólica (PAD). A variável que apresentou maior poder preditivo da ocorrência de hipertensão foi a CC. Os resultados indicam que na população estudada de crianças entre 8 e 10 anos de idade a CC é uma medida de valor superior para predizer PA aumentada.
ABSTRACT Cerebrovascular disease, particularly stroke, is one of the most severe clinical complications associated with sickle cell disease and is a significant cause of morbidity in both children and adults. Over the past two decades, considerable advances have been made in the understanding of its natural history and enabled early identification and treatment of children at the highest risk. Transcranial Doppler screening and regular blood transfusions have markedly reduced the risk of stroke in children. However, transcranial Doppler has a limited positive predictive value and the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular disease is not completely understood. In this review, we will focus on the current state of knowledge about risk factors associated with ischemic stroke in patients with sickle cell disease. A search of PubMed was performed to identify studies. Full texts of the included articles were reviewed and data were summarized in a table. The coinheritance of alpha-thalassemia plays a protective role against ischemic stroke. The influence of other genetic risk factors is controversial, still preliminary, and requires confirmatory studies. Recent advances have established the reticulocyte count as the most important laboratory risk factor. Clinical features associated with acute hypoxemia as well as silent infarcts seem to influence the development of strokes in children. However, transcranial Doppler remains the only available clinical prognostic tool to have been validated. If our understanding of the many risk factors associated with stroke advances further, it may be possible to develop useful tools to detect patients at the highest risk early, improving the selection of children requiring intensification therapy.
ABSTRACT Background: The etiology of stroke, a severe complication of sickle cell anemia, involves inflammatory processes. However, the pathogenetic mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of interleukin-10 polymorphisms and haplotypes on the risk of acute cerebral ischemia and high-risk transcranial Doppler in 395 children with sickle cell anemia from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: Interleukin-10 haplotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing. The outcomes studied were acute cerebral ischemia and high-risk transcranial Doppler. Clinical data were retrieved from the children's records. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the frequencies of polymorphisms and haplotypes between children with and without acute cerebral ischemia or children with or without high-risk transcranial Doppler. These data are consistent with a previous report that showed an absence of association between interleukin-10 plasma levels and high-risk transcranial Doppler velocity in children with sickle cell anemia. Conclusion: Interleukin-10 haplotypes were not associated with the risk of acute cerebral ischemia or high-risk transcranial Doppler velocity in children with sickle cell anemia from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
In this work, polyclonal antibodies anti-human Factor IX were produced in New Zealand rabbits by immunization with commercial pure human FIX (hFIX) (Octanyne®, Octapharma, USA). The serum containing immunoglobulins anti-hFIX was useful to detect hFIX antigen in human plasma fractions submitted to anionic exchange chromatographic process and with a large yield. Immunoassays (ELISA) using bovine serum albumin, trypsin and peptides generated by cleavage assays with trypsin as digestion enzyme was performed and revealed adequate specificity of the polyclonal antibodies produced.
Neste trabalho foram produzidos anticorpos policlonais anti-fator IX humano em coelhos New Zealand imunizados com FIX humano (hFIX) comercial puro (Octanyne®, Octapharma, EUA). O soro contendo as imunoglobulinas anti-hFIX foi útil para a detecção do antígeno hFIX em frações do plasma humano submetido a cromatografia de troca iônica. Imunoensaios (ELISA) usando soro-albumina bovina, tripsina e peptídeos gerados por ensaios de clivagem com tripsina com enzima de digestão foram realizados e revelaram especificidade adequada dos anticorpos policlonais produzidos.