RESUMO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito do ácido guanidinoacético (GAA) no desempenho de leitões, bem como um possível mecanismo de ação molecular no ganho de massa magra. Setenta e dois leitões, desmamados aos 21 dias, pesando 6,80 ± 1,2 kg, foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos dietéticos (controle, controle + 1,2 g / kg ou controle + 2,4 g / kg GAA) e 8 repetições por tratamento. A dieta controle não continha proteína animal e foi formulada a base de milho e farelo de soja. O desempenho dos animais foi avaliado aos 35, 49 e 56 dias. Ao final do experimento, um animal por unidade experimental foi abatido e amostras do músculo Vastus lateralis foram coletadas para análise de RT-qPCR e abundância de proteínas. A suplementação com GAA melhorou a eficiência alimentar (P<0,03) aos 56 dias. O músculo dos leitões suplementados apresentou maior expressão de mRNA de Akt (P<0,04) e RPS6KB2 (P <0,01). Em conclusão, a suplementação de 2,4 g / kg de GAA em leitões (21 a 56 d) melhora a eficiência alimentar e ativa mecanismos moleculares importantes para o ganho de massa magra.
ABSTRACT: The objective with the present study was to evaluate the effect of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on the growth performance of nursery piglets as well as a possible molecular mechanism of action on lean mass gain. Seventy-two pigs, weaned at 21 d, weighing 6.80 ± 1.2 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design into one of three dietary treatments (control, control + 1.2 g/kg GAA or control + 2.4 g/kg GAA) and 8 replicates per treatment. The control diet was an animal protein-free diet based on corn and soybean meal. Body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed efficiency were evaluated at 35, 49, and 56 days. At the end of the experiment, one animal per pen was slaughtered and samples of the vastus lateralis muscle were collected for RT-qPCR and protein abundance analysis. Overall (from 21 to 56 d), GAA supplementation improved feed efficiency (P < 0.03). Skeletal muscle of pigs fed with GAA diet had greater mRNA expression of Akt (P < 0.04) and RPS6KB2 (P<0.01). In conclusion, supplementation with 2.4 g/kg GAA to nursery piglets improves feed efficiency and activates molecular mechanisms important to lean mass gain.
ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of corn processing on performance and intestinal parameters of weanling piglets. To accomplish our goal, 42 piglets (21 days-old, 7.18±1.0 kg body weight) were randomly allocated (seven pens/treatment; three pigs/pen) to one of two treatments: ground corn – corn ground through a hammer mill with a 1.0-mm screen after being ground by a hammer mill with a 3.0-mm screen, and extruded corn – corn was wet extruded after being ground by a hammer mill with a 2.0-mm screen and, after extrusion, it was ground by a hammer mill with a 1.0-mm screen. In both methods, corn from the same batch was used. Results were considered statistically significant when P<0.05 and a tendency when P<0.10. Analyses were performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Pigs fed ground or extruded corn diet had similar growth performance. Duodenum and jejunum of pigs fed extruded corn had greater villus height compared with those of pigs fed ground corn. Crypt depth was not influenced by corn processing. Duodenum and jejunum of pigs fed extruded corn had greater villus:crypt ratio compared with those of pigs fed ground corn. In the duodenum, the expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) was greater, and the expression of Occludin-1 tended to be greater in pigs fed the extruded corn diets. There was no effect of corn processing on ZO-1 and Occludin-1 expression in the jejunum, nor TGF-β1 expression in duodenum and jejunum. There was no effect of the type of corn processing on colonic total bacteria or Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus abundance. Piglets fed diets with ground corn or extruded corn have similar growth performance. However, piglets fed diets with extruded corn present improved intestinal morphology and tight junction protein expression compared with those fed ground corn.