ABSTRACT: In view of the need to increase genetic variability to obtain materials with a significant capacity to drought tolerance, this study conducted a cycle of a reciprocal recurrent selection of full-sib families of maize. To this end, 64 full-sib families of maize were evaluated in two environments according to their morpho-agronomic data in a randomized block design with two replicates. It were analyzed of Male flowering (MF); Female flowering (FF); Flowering interval (IF); days for flowering (DF); Plant height (PH); Ear height (EH); number of plants at the Stand (NPS); Number of broken plant (NBrP); Number of bedded plants (NBeP); Strawing (St); Ear length (EL); Ear diameter (ED); Ear number (EN); Prolificacy (Pr); Number of diseased ears (NDE); Number of ears attacked by pests (NEP); Ear weight (EW); Yield (YIE) and Total Chlorophyll Index (TCI). The analysis of variance was performed by the F test at 5% significance level, and also the evaluation of genetic parameters. Regarding morpho-agronomic data, the analysis of variance and the analysis of genetic parameters showed that there was no interaction genotype x environment with regard to the genetic variability among the families under study. Lastly, the final selection of the superior genotypes was made on the basis of the ranking of the 40 most productive families, from which, combined with the molecular data, the 30 most productive, most drought-tolerant, and most genetically diverse ones were selected to compose the next cycle of recurrent maize selection aiming water-stress tolerance.
RESUMO: Tendo em vista a necessidade de aumentar a variabilidade genética para obter materiais com significativa capacidade de tolerância à seca, este estudo conduziu um ciclo de seleção recorrente recíproca de famílias de irmãos completos de milho. Para tanto, 64 famílias de irmãos completos de milho foram avaliadas em dois ambientes de acordo com seus dados morfoagronômicos em um delineamento de blocos casualizados com duas repetições. Foram analisados o florescimento masculino (MF); florescimento feminino (FF); Intervalo de florescimento (IF); dias para florescimento (DF); Altura da planta (PH); Altura da espiga (EH); número de plantas na parcela (NPS); Número de planta quebrada (NBrP); Número de plantas com acamadas (NBeP); empalhamento (St); Comprimento da espiga (EL); Diâmetro da espiga (DE); Número de espigas (EN); Prolificidade (Pr); Número de espigas doentes (EQM); Número de espigas atacadas por pragas (NEP); Peso de espiga (EW); Rendimento de grãos (YIE) e Índice de clorofila total (TCI). A análise de variância foi realizada pelo teste F com nível de significância de 5% e também pela avaliação dos parâmetros genéticos. Em relação aos dados morfoagronômicos, a análise de variância e a análise dos parâmetros genéticos mostraram que não houve interação genótipo x ambiente no que diz respeito à variabilidade genética entre as famílias em estudo. Por fim, a seleção final dos genótipos superiores foi feita com base no ranking das 40 famílias mais produtivas, das quais, combinadas com os dados moleculares, foram selecionadas as 30 mais produtivas, mais tolerantes à seca e mais geneticamente diversificadas. para compor o próximo ciclo de seleção recorrente de milho visando tolerância ao estresse hídrico.
ABSTRACT. The cultivation of special corns, such as baby corn, has had a positive influence on the economy of the country. Despite its importance, there is still a need for studies aimed at increasing production and planting areas of the crop. Phytosanitary studies are of particular interest, as the cultivation of such crops is susceptible to a series of pathogens, such as Bipolaris maydis, Exserohilum turcicum, and Puccinia polysora. The use of resistant cultivars is the most effective way to prevent the occurrence of these diseases. Thus, the present study aimed to identify popcorn lines that have the potential for baby corn production and are resistant to the main leaf diseases that affect the crop. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with four replications of 30 lines in each area, during two planting seasons. The area was located at the Federal Institute of Espírito Santo (IFES) Campus of Alegre, situated in Rive district, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Using the obtained data, the area under the disease progress curve was obtained. Subsequently, analysis of the joint variance of the data was conducted, and when a significant effect was found, a grouping of means test was conducted. The Mahalanobis distance for each pair of lines was also calculated, and the genetic distance matrix was used to construct a dendrogram using the UPGMA method. Considering the averages obtained for the three diseases (Southern corn leaf blight, Northern corn leaf blight, and Southern rust), lines L61, L63, L65, L683, L684, L685, L691, L694, and L695 were identified as possible donors of resistance alleles for multiple diseases. Multivariate analysis efficiently grouped the lines L61, L63, L684, L685, and L691, which are described as most resistant in the univariate analysis.