Chromosome numbers were counted in 126 new accessions of 50 Paspalum species from Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia. The chromosome numbers 2n=12, 20, 24, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 were confirmed. Chromosome numbers for P. arenarium (2n=20), P. barretoi (2n=20), P. aff. ceresia (2n=40), P. corcovadense (2n=20), P. crispulum (2n=20), P. flaccidum (2n=40), P. nummularium (2n=20), P. scalare (2n=20), P. vescum (2n=20) and P. rectum (2n=20) and a diploid cytotype of P. malacophyllum are reported for the first time. The predominance of tetraploid accessions (43.6%) was confirmed, but an unusually high number of diploid species (44%) and accessions (35.7%) was found. These results open new perspectives for breeding programs, phylogenetic studies, and for research on apomixis control, since diploids of Paspalum are typically sexual.
O número cromossômico foi determinado para 126 novos acessos de 50 espécies de Paspalum do Brasil, Argentina, Paraguai e Bolívia. Foram verificados os números somáticos 2n=12, 20, 24, 30, 40, 50, 60 e 80. Estas são as primeiras contagens para P. arenarium (2n=20), P. barretoi (2n=20), P. aff. ceresia (2n=40), P. corcovadense (2n=20), P. crispulum (2n=20), P. flaccidum (2n=40), P. nummularium (2n=20), P. scalare (2n=20), P. vescum (2n=20) e P. rectum (2n=20). O nível diplóide (2n=20) é reportado pela primeira vez para P. malacophyllum. Os dados confirmam a predominância de acessos tetraplóides (43,6%) no gênero e mostram um número incomumente elevado de espécies (44%) e acessos diplóides (35,7%). Estes resultados trazem novas perspectivas para programas de melhoramento, para estudos filogenéticos e para pesquisa orientada ao controle da apomixia, já que em Paspalum as plantas diplóides são tipicamente sexuais.
Paspalum quadrifarium Lam. is a bunchgrass native to Uruguay, Argentina, and southern Brazil. Diploid, triploid, tetraploid and hexaploid cytotypes have been reported for this species of the Quadrifaria group of Paspalum. In this group, a high degree of cytogenetic homology between the genomes of several diploid species has been reported, based on meiotic pairing in interspecific hybrids; multivalent associations would thus be expected in polyploid hybrids. Karyotype analysis could provide useful information about the genomic architecture of polyploid plants; however, the fully condensed mitotic chromosomes of Paspalum do not provide enough morphological features for such an analysis. In this paper, we used mitotic prometaphase chromosomes treated with 70% acetic acid at 40 °C after cover slip removal. This process removes cytoplasm that remains from chromosome squashes and makes prometaphases available for karyological analysis. The karyotypes of a triploid (2n = 3x = 30) and a tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) accession of Paspalum quadrifarium were studied using this technique, and evidence of segmental allopolyploidy was found in both cases. In both accessions, meiotic behavior was in accordance with that origin. This technique greatly improved the number and quality of analyzable metaphases and prometaphases on otherwise conventional slides and is recommended for plants with small chromosomes.