Abstract This study aimed to develop Greek style yoghurts with the addition of bovine colostrum. Four yoghurt formulations were produced with different colostrum content (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%). The fat, protein, total solids, ash, retinol levels were quantified as well as the colour was measured. A sensory analysis was conducted with 103 untrained panelists, evaluating the attributes of appearance, aroma, consistency, flavour, overall acceptance and the purchase intention. Colostrum addition increased the fat and protein levels in the yoghurt formulations. The Greek style yoghurts with bovine colostrum reached sensory acceptance above 70% for all attributes.
Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the milking method, the storage conditions and the SCC (Somatic Cell Count) increase on the quality of raw milk. Monthly evaluations were performed out over a year in 21 tanks by monitoring the refrigeration temperature and the storage time of the milk in the tank. The tanks were grouped into three temperature levels. Milk storage time intervals were established in each tank: up to 24 h of storage; between 24 and 48 h; and above 48 h. The effect of SCC on the composition was evaluated in three categories: Low SCC; Medium SCC; High SCC. In the analyzed period, 10.8 % presented low SCC, followed by 46.5 % with medium SCC, while 42.7 % had high SCC. There was a positive correlation between SCC and protein, and a negative correlation between SCC and lactose. It is concluded that the milking method does not influence the microbial contamination of the milk; however, longer storage time and increased temperature influenced an increase in microorganism counts in milk. In evaluating the hygienic/sanitary quality of the milk, 42.7 % had high SCC and the total bacterial counts presented values above the values recommended by legislation.
Resumen Las condiciones del ordeño y almacenamiento pueden afectar a la calidad de la leche cruda. Se hizo una evaluación de la influencia del método de ordeño, las condiciones de almacenamiento y el aumento en el recuento de células somáticas (RCS) en la calidad de la leche cruda. Se realizaron evaluaciones mensuales durante un año en 21 tanques mediante el monitoreo de la temperatura de refrigeración y el tiempo de almacenamiento de la leche en el tanque. Los tanques se agruparon en tres rangos de temperatura. Se establecieron intervalos de tiempo de almacenamiento de leche en cada tanque: hasta 24 h; de 24 a 48 h; y más de 48 h. El efecto de RCS sobre la composición se evaluó en tres categorías: RCS bajo; RCS intermedio; y RCS alto. En el período analizado, solo el 10.8 % de los tanques tuvieron un RCS bajo, el 46.5 % tuvieron uno intermedio, y el 42.7 % uno alto. Hubo una correlación positiva entre el RCS y el nivel de la proteína, y una correlación negativa entre el RCS y el nivel de la lactosa. Los resultados indican que el método de ordeño no influye en la contaminación microbiana de la leche. En contraste, un mayor tiempo de almacenamiento y el aumento de la temperatura causaron un aumento en el RCS y el conteo microbiano total. Las prácticas de higiene en los hatos y los tanques estudiados requieren de mejoramiento, ya que el 42.7 % de los tanques presentaron un RCS alto y los conteos bacterianos totales presentaron valores superiores a los recomendados por la legislación.
Abstract Cheese production such as mozzarella is affected by several factors including the processing technology (e.g., cuts, fermentation, curd stretching), as well as quantity and quality of raw materials and other ingredients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mozzarella cheese yield and buffalo milk composition, processing factors, and losses of whey constituents using polynomial regression and adjusted R2. All regression coefficients associated with each explanatory variable were significantly different from zero. The models explained an average of 99% of the variation in the dataset. The regression models showed that the concentration of milk components (e.g., fat, protein, casein, lactose, total solids), somatic cell score, age and acidity of the starter culture, time between curd cuts, and percentage of lost whey constituents highly influenced the mozzarella cheese yield. The buffalo dairy industry should focus on rigorous control of milk quality and processing factors to standardize and optimize mozzarella cheese yield efficiency.
Abstract Our aim was to evaluate the sensorial acceptance and consumption intent of pasteurized milks and coalho cheeses produced with milk with low (80,000 cells/mL) and high (480,000 cells/mL) somatic cell count (SCC) level. Low SCC pasteurized milk (LCC) obtained statistically higher scores on the aroma, consistency, flavor and overall liking attributes in comparison with high SCC pasteurized milk. LCC mean scores for all attributes were statistically higher than high SCC Coalho Cheese. High SCC in raw milk has a detrimental effect on the quality of pasteurized milk and coalho cheeses as it presented lower sensory acceptance, failing to meet the consumer’s desired expectations.
Abstract The objective of this work was to investigate the factors which affect the consumption of organic foods enriched with functional properties. The study was developed by investigating the consumer profile of organic and functional foods by applying a questionnaire hosted on the Google Forms® platform (docs.google.com/forms/). The obtained results show that individuals in the age group 31 to 40 years old and those 51 and older, widowed, divorced and inhabitants of the Midwest, Southeast and South regions consume organic food more often. The education level did not influence the willingness to pay more for the purchase of an organic food, the consumption frequency or the interest in consuming organic food with functional potential. The interviewee group had a monthly income of up to R$4,686.00 (In Reais - 5 minimum monthly salaries) and showed a consumption frequency between “almost never” and “sometimes”, while those with an income higher than R$4,686.00 presented between “sometimes” and “often”. Residents of capital cities and from smaller cities showed similar behavior for all variables analyzed. We can conclude that the degree of confidence and the interest in consuming organic foods with functional potential were little influenced by socio-demographic differences.
Abstract Our objective was to address the use of equine milk for human consumption, highlighting important compositional aspects and peculiar characteristics of this milk. Equine milk stands out for its similarity to breastmilk in compositional aspects considering the quality of the protein and lipid fractions, and due to the presence of important bioactive compounds. The high percentage of whey proteins and the structure of the protein micelles favor equine milk’s digestibility, while its bioactive protein richness and the good relationships established between fatty acids highlight it as a functional food. Children who are allergic to cow's milk protein, the elderly and/or people affected by skin and gastrointestinal disorders are potential consumer of equine milk. Assays have proven the therapeutic properties of koumiss ; high tolerability of equine milk by children who are intolerant to cow’s milk; beneficial effects in treating atopic dermatitis and chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract; and potential of this milk in the prophylaxis and/or nutritional support of patients affected by several diseases. Scientific findings highlight the potential of equine milk as a beneficial food for human health, regarding both its nutritional aspects and functionalities, which could contribute to the increased demand for equine milk in global dairy market.
Abstract Mozzarella cheese is typically from Italy and consumed in the whole world. The aim of this study was to characterize the manufacture of Mozzarella produced similarly to Italian in a Brazilian dairy industry regarding the milk composition usage, factors involved in the production process, use of raw materials and cheese yield. Was monitored the Mozzarella yield (MY), milk composition, manufacturing of Mozzarella cheese and recovery of whey constituents of 30 lots of Mozzarella cheese in a dairy brazilian industry. Overall, processing reached an adequate MY for this type of cheese, being below 5.0 L kg-1. We find values of 5.93 ± 1.87; 34.97 ± 2.70; 33.39 ± 2.85; 95.04 ± 4.18; 44.02 ± 2.00; and 66.82 ± 3.36 respectively for recovery of fat, protein, casein, lactose, total solids and solids-not-fat in whey. The milk used by the dairy industry had satisfactory physicochemical characteristics. The manufacturing of Mozzarella cheese was efficient.
RESUMO. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do estádio de lactação, estado fisiológico, contagem de células somáticas (CCS) e escore de condição corporal (ECC) sobre a produção e composição do leite de vacas Gir e Guzerá. Foram utilizadas noventa e oito vacas, que foram classificadas de acordo com o estado fisiológico, estádio de lactação, CCS e ECC. O leite foi pesado mensalmente para obtenção dos dados de produção. Amostras compostas coletadas em frascos contendo conservante foram enviadas ao laboratório para análises. Os dados foram submetidos a análises estatísticas descritivas e de variâncias. Verificou-se maior produção de leite nos primeiros 60 dias de lactação. Os teores de gordura, proteína e extrato seco aumentaram com o avançar da lactação; enquanto o teor de lactose decresceu. Foram observados maiores teores de gordura, proteína e sólidos totais no leite de vacas vazias; enquanto as vacas gestantes apresentaram maior produção diária e maior teor de lactose no leite. Maiores teores de lactose foram verificados em animais com menor CCS. O ECC não teve efeito sobre a composição e escore de células somáticas do leite. A produção e composição do leite de vacas zebuínas sofrem influência do estádio de lactação, do estado fisiológico e da CCS.
ABSTRACT. This work was realized to evaluate lactation stage, physiological state, somatic cell count (SCC) and body condition score (BCS) on production and composition of cow's milk from Gir and Guzerat breeds were studied. Ninety-eight cows were analyzed and classified according to their physiological state, lactation stage, SCC and BCS. Milk production was weighed monthly to obtain production data. Composed samples were collected in vials containing preservatives and sent to the laboratory for analysis. Data were used for statistic descriptive analysis and analysis of variance. Higher milk production in the first 60 days of lactation was observed. Fat, protein and total solids concentration increased according to the increase of days in milk; while lactose concentration decreased. Higher levels of fat, protein and total solids in milk of non-pregnant cows were observed; while pregnant cows had higher daily production and higher lactose content in their milk. Higher lactose levels in milk were observed in animals with lower SCC. The BCS had no effect on milk composition or on somatic cell count. Zebu cow milk production and composition are influenced by lactation stage, physiological state and SCC.
RESUMO Objetivou-se avaliar as características de carcaça de ovinos da raça Santa Inês alimentados com mazoferm em substituição ao farelo de soja (0,0; 33,0; 66,0 e 100,0%). Foram utilizados 32 animais machos, não castrados, com peso médio inicial de 21 ± 2,3 kg e idade média de quatro meses, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados e abatidos após 70 dias de confinamento. Não foi observado efeito da substituição sobre os consumos de matéria seca (1,103 kg/dia) e NDT (0,74 kg/dia), porém o consumo de proteína bruta apresentou comportamento linear decrescente (Y = 0,172 - 0,0002x). O desempenho e o peso corporal ao abate (34,10 kg) também não foram influenciados pela substituição fazendo com que os parâmetros peso do corpo vazio (28,49 kg), peso de carcaça quente (16,05 kg) e fria (15,56 kg), rendimento de carcaça quente (47,00 kg), rendimento comercial (45,54 kg) e rendimento biológico (56,29 kg) apresentassem o mesmo comportamento. Além desses parâmetros, a espessura de gordura de cobertura, perda de peso por resfriamento, área de olho de lombo (1,56 mm, 3,11%, 12,16 cm2, respectivamente), pesos e rendimentos dos cortes comerciais perna e as medidas morfométricas da carcaça, índices de compacidade da carcaça (0,24 kg/cm) e da perna (0,36 cm/cm) também não foram influenciados. Recomenda-se a substituição do farelo de soja pelo mazoferm tendo em vista que o mesmo não altera as características de carcaça de ovinos Santa Inês.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the carcass characteristics of Santa Inês sheep fed with mazoferm as a substitute for soybean meal (0.0, 33.0, 66.0 and 100.0%). Thirty-two uncastrated males with an average initial weight of 21 ± 2.3 kg and average age of four months were used, distributed in a randomised complete block design and slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. The substitution had no effect on dry matter (1.103 kg/day) or TDN consumption (0.74 kg/day), however, crude protein consumption displayed decreasing linear behaviour (Y = 0.172 - 0.0002x). Performance and body weight at slaughter (34.10 kg) were also not affected by the substitution, so that the parameters of empty body weight (28.49 kg), hot carcass weight (16.05 kg) and cold carcass weight (15.56 kg), hot carcass yield (47.00 kg), commercial yield (45.54 kg) and biological yield (56.29 kg) all displayed similar behaviour. In addition to these parameters, fat cover, weight loss by cooling, loin eye area (1.56 mm, 3.11%, 12.16 cm2 respectively), weight and yield of the commercial cuts and morphometric measurements of the carcass, carcass compactness index (0.24 kg/cm) and leg compactness index (0.36 cm/cm) were also not affected. The substitution of soybean meal by mazoferm is recommended as it does not alter carcass characteristics in Santa Inês sheep.
Abstract This literature review discusses the concepts and factors that influence industrial cheese yield and compiles the latest studies conducted in Brazil involving this theme. In seeking to support managerial decision-making, cheese yield can be measured at the end of processing or estimated prior to this. In research and industry, measuring and estimating yield can be evaluated under the effect of processing, from different proportions and characteristics of ingredients (mainly milk quality), to processing factors involving the steps of the actual production (handling of the raw material and the curd coagulation conditions, salting, maturation, etc.) and the equipment. The number of Brazilian studies that have sought to answer questions about this topic in recent years was reasonable. The vast majority of them considered yield in its most basic aspect, which is obtained by measuring what was produced. Few studies used the perspective of prediction, indicating that there is room for a more empirical approach that allows for obtaining other types of answers regarding efficiency in the production of cheese, and which is shown as an opportunity for Brazilian research to advance.
RESUMO Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação alimentar 0,4; 0,8 e 1,2% do peso corporal (PC) sobre o desempenho de caprinos mestiços terminados em pasto de caatinga, em relação a caprinos mestiços não suplementados (0,0% do PC). Utilizou-se 32 caprinos machos castrados, mestiços Anglonubiana, com oito meses de idade e peso corporal médio de 18 ± 2,5 kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados, mantidos em 37 hectares de caatinga, das 7 h às 16 h. O consumo de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente neutro e ácido, carboidrato totais e nutrientes digestíveis totais foram influenciados (P<0,05) pelos níveis de suplementação alimentar, com acréscimos lineares de, 202,31; 179,42; 25,05; 11,83; 35,79; 12,27, 142,63 e 166,79 g animal-1 dia-1, respectivamente. Houve efeito substitutivo (P<0,05) do consumo de matéria seca a partir de 0,7% PC. A suplementação alimentar resultou em efeito linear positivo (P<0,05) sobre a digestibilidade da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, carboidratos totais, teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais e energia digestível, com acréscimos de, 17,15; 16,64; 19,07; 44,74; 15,15 e 17,56 % na matéria seca; e 0,69 Mcal kg-1 de matéria seca, respectivamente. O peso corporal final, ganho total e ganho médio diário, elevaram-se linearmente (P<0,05) em 2,60; 3,09 e 0,036 kg por unidade percentual do nível de suplementação. A suplementação alimentar eleva o consumo e digestibilidade de matéria seca total e dos nutrientes, fato que possibilita maior desempenho, com recomendação para utilização até o nível de 0,7% PC para evitar efeito de substituição.
SUMMARY It was evaluated the effect of feed supplementation at 0.4; 0.8 and 1.2% of body weight (BW) on intake and digestibility of crossbred goats finished on caatinga, in relation to crossbred goats not supplemented (0.0% of BW). Thirty-two crossbred, Anglo-Nubian goats were used, eight months old and with body weight of 18 ± 2.5 kg, organised into randomised blocks, which were kept on 37 hectares of caatinga from 7 h to 16 h. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral and acid detergent fibre, total carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients was influenced (P<0.05) by the levels of feed supplementation, with linear increases of 202.31; 179.42; 25.05; 11.83; 35.79; 12.27; 142.63 and 166.79 g animal-1 day-1 respectively. There was a substitution effect (P<0.05) on dry matter intake when using feed supplementation at 0.7% BW. Feed supplementation resulted in positive linear effect (P<0.05) for digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, total carbohydrates, total digestible-nutrient content and digestible energy, with an increase of 17.15; 16.64; 19.07; 44.74; 15.15 and 17.56% for dry matter, and 0.69 Mcal kg-1 of dry matter respectively. Final body weight, total gain and average daily gain, showed a linear increase (P<.005) of 2.60, 3.09 and 0.036 kg per percentage point of each additional level of supplement. Feed supplementation increases the intake and digestibility of total dry matter and nutrients, a fact that makes greater performance possible, and recommends use up to a level of 0.7% BW to avoid any substitution effect.
Abstract Adverse reactions to food intake have very diverse etiology and symptomatology. Regarding milk, its food allergy is presented as lactose intolerance, the sugar in milk, or allergy to milk protein. Despite having different symptomatology, confusions among allergic conditions to dairy and its mediators are common. Milk protein allergy originates from protein components present in milk, causing reactions to either the protein fractions in emulsion (caseins) or in whey (milk albumin). The allergic reaction is type IV mediated by T lymphocytes. The allergic reaction produces severe cellular damage and it triggers physical, mental and emotional symptomatology that may vary in time, intensity and severity. Lactose intolerance is originated by total or partial absence of the enzyme that digests this disaccharide. Lactose intolerance can be primary or congenital and secondary; the former being more rare and severe, the latter being more common. Lactase deficiency can be diagnosed by symptoms associated with cramping and diarrhea. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct a review of available literature on cow’s milk protein allergy and lactose intolerance.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of alternative protein sources (castor bean cake, sunflower cake, and sunflower seed) to soybean meal on the intake and performance of 40 lambs, initially weighing 19.8±1.84 kg, fed diets based on Tifton grass hay. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks. There were no differences in the nutrient intake of castor bean diets compared with soybean meal. The intake of nutrients in the sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets was decreased compared with soybean meal. The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber of sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets were decreased compared with soybean meal. The average daily weight gain of animals fed the castor bean diet (0.190 kg) was not different from that of the animals fed the soybean meal diet (0.217 kg). The sunflower cake and sunflower seed diets provided less weight gain (0.171 and 0.135 kg d-1, respectively) than soybean meal due to the lower nutrient intake. The hot carcass yield and true yield were not affected by the protein sources. The neck, ribs, and ham weights were similar in lambs fed soybean meal and castor bean cake diets. It is recommended to use castor bean as an alternative protein source in the diet of lambs.
O consumo per capta de carne ovina no Brasil ainda é pequeno quando comparado às carnes oriundas de outras espécies animais, sendo o perfil lipídico da carne apontado como responsável pelo consumo reduzido. Apesar de sofrer influência de sexo, raça, peso ao abate e ambiente, a dieta é tida como principal fator que influencia a composição lipídica da carne ovina. Avaliou-se o efeito da substituição do milho pelo gérmen integral de milho na dieta de ovinos da raça Santa Inês sobre a composição química e lipídica da carne. Quarenta animais não castrados da raça Santa Inês foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e oito repetições, e abatidos após 70 dias de confinamento. Não houve influência sobre a composição química da carne. Não houve efeito sobre o total de ácidos graxos saturados (AGS), mas verificou-se efeito linear decrescente para o total de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados e crescente para o total de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados (AGP). As relações AGP:AGS e ω-6:ω-3 elevaram-se com a substituição. O gérmen integral de milho não influencia a composição química da carne, mas melhora a qualidade nutricional da fração lipídica, enriquecendo-a com compostos benéficos à saúde humana.
The per capita consumption of sheep meat in Brazil is still small compared to meat originating from other animal species, the lipid profile of meat named as responsible for reduced consumption. Despite the influence of sex, breed, weight at slaughter and environment, diet is seen as a major factor influencing the lipid composition of sheep meat. This study evaluated the effect of replacing corn by corn germ meal (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) in the diet of Santa Inês sheep on the meat's chemical and lipid composition. Forty non-emasculated animals were distributed in a randomized block experimental design, with five treatments and eight replications, and slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. There was no influence of the substitution on the meat's chemical composition. No effects on the total saturated fatty acids (SFA) were observed, but there was a decreasing linear effect on the total monounsaturated fatty acids (MFA) and an increasing linear effect on the total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFA). The PFA:SFA and ω-6:ω-3 ratios increased with the substitution level. Corn germ meal had no effect on the meat's chemical composition, but improved the nutritional quality of the lipid fraction, enriching it with compounds beneficial for human health.
Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação alimentar nos níveis, 0; 0,4; 0,8 e 1,2% do peso corporal (PC), sobre as características quantitativas da carcaça e composição tecidual do pernil de caprinos mestiços terminados em pastagem de caatinga. Utilizaram-se 32 caprinos machos castrados, mestiços da raça Anglonubiana, com oito meses de idade e peso corporal de 18±2,5kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados, que foram mantidos em área de 37 hectares de pastagem de caatinga das 7h às 16h. O peso corporal sem jejum, peso corporal final, peso de carcaça quente e fria, peso de corpo vazio, rendimentos de carcaça quente e fria foram influenciados (P<0,05) pelos níveis de suplementação alimentar, com acréscimos lineares de, 3,50; 2,59; 1,69; 1,76; 3,39kg; 2,42 e 2,44%, respectivamente. Os pesos dos cortes comerciais foram influenciados (P<0,05) pelos níveis de suplementação alimentar, a exceção do peso do pescoço. O rendimento dos cortes não foi influenciado (P>0,05%) pela suplementação, com médias, 10,17; 21,19; 16,23; 11,02; 7,30 e 34,08%, para o pescoço, paleta, costilhar, serrote, lombo e pernil, respectivamente. A composição tecidual em peso absoluto do pernil foi influenciada (P<0,05) pela suplementação alimentar, com incremento de 293,59; 212,04; 28,29 e 53,82g, por unidade percentual do nível de suplementação, para o pernil inteiro, músculo total, gordura total e osso, respectivamente. A suplementação alimentar eleva os parâmetros quantitativos da carcaça, associado a incrementos no tecido muscular, gordura total e ossos do pernil, recomendando-se emprego de 1,2 %PC, com vistas a melhor acabamento para comercialização.
It was evaluated the effect of supplementation feeding levels (0; 0.4; 0.8; and 1.2% of body weight BW) on carcass aspects and leg tissue composition of crossbred goats finish on caatinga pasture. Were used 32 goats crossbred Anglonubiana, with eight months of age and 18±2.5 kilogram of BW, organized in randomized blocks, which were kept in 37 hectares of caatinga pasture, where they remained from 07h to 16h. Fasted live weigh, finish body weight, hot and cold carcass weight, empty body weight, hot and cold carcass yields, were influenced (P<.05) by supplementation feeding, raise of 3.50; 2.59; 1.69; 1.76; 3.39 kilogram, and 2.43; 2.44%, respectively. Retail cuts weight were influenced (P<.05) by supplementation, except neck weight. The cuts yield was not affected (P>.05) by supplementation with means, 10.17; 21.19; 16.23; 11.02; 7.30 and 34.08%, for neck, shoulder, ribs, brisket, loin and leg, respectively. Absolute weight of leg tissue composition was influenced (P<.05) by supplementation, with increase of, 293.59, 212.04, 28.29 and 53.82g, per unit percentage of supplementation, for total leg, total muscle, total fat and bone, respectively. Supplementation feeding increase carcass aspects, associated with increases in leg muscle tissue, fat and bones, recommending use of 1.2% of BW, to better finish for sale.