Experiência: Objetivamos investigar os efeitos de metoclopramida e ondansetrona no bloqueio neuromuscular por mivacúrio. Métodos: Foram incluídos no estudo 75 pacientes ASA I-II, com idades entre 18 e 65 anos e agendados para cirurgia eletiva necessitando de intubação traqueal. Os pacientes receberam metoclopramida 10 mg, ondansetrona 4 mg ou salina normal 5 mL; grupo M, grupo O e grupo SN (n = 25) respectivamente. Antes da anestesia, os medicamentos em estudo foram administrados em um volume de 5 mL. O nível de colinesterase plasmática foram obtidos antes e 5 minutos depois da administração dos medicamentos em estudo e 5 minutos depois da administração de mivacúrio. Os tempos até o início e os níveis T25, T75, T25-75 e T90 foram comparados entre si, tendo sido investigadas as diferenças entre cada paciente. Depois de registrar T90, o estudo foi terminado, tendo início a cirurgia. Resultados: O tempo até o início foi significativamente mais breve no Grupo M versus os outros dois grupos. O tempo até o início no Grupo O foi significativamente mais breve versus grupo SN. No grupo M, T25, T75, T90 e os índices de recuperação foram significativamente maiores versus Grupo NS (p < 0,001). No Grupo O, T25 e T75 foram maiores versus Grupo NS (p < 0,01 e p < 0,05,respectivamente). No Grupo M, T75, T90 e índices de retorno da anestesia foram significativamente maiores versus Grupo O (p < 0,001, p < 0,01, p < 0,001, respectivamente). Nos Grupos M e O, os níveis plasmáticos de colinesterase diminuíram significativamente (p < 0,001). Depois da administração dos medicamentos em estudo e de mivacúrio. Houve também redução na colinesterase plasmática no Grupo NS 5 minutos após a administração de mivacúrio (p < 0,001). Conclusão: Consideramos que ondansetrona seja agente mais confiável do que metoclopramida, quando utilizada com mivacúrio.
Background: We aimed to investigate the effects of metoclopramide and ondansetrone on mivacurium neuromuscular blockade. Methods: Seventy five, ASA I-II patients, aged 18-65 and scheduled for elective surgery requiring tracheal intubation were included in the study. The patients received metoclopramide 10 mg, ondansetrone 4 mg or normal saline 5 mL; group M, group O, group NS (n = 25), respectively. Before anesthesia study drugs were administered in a volume of 5 mL. The level of plasma cholinesterase were obtained before and 5 minutes after the administration of study drugs and5 minutes after the administration of mivacurium. Onset time, T25, T75, T25-75, T90 levelswere compared with each other and differences between each patients were investigated. After recording T90, the study was terminated and surgery was started. Results: Onset time was significantly shorter in group M, than the other two groups. Onset time in group O was significantly shorter than in group NS. In Group M T25, T75, T90 and recovery indices were significantly greater than in Group NS (p < 0.001). In Group O T25, T75 were greater than Group NS (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). In Group M T75, T90 and emergence indices were significantly higher than Group O (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.001, respectively). In Groups M and O, plasma cholinesterase levels decreased significantly (p < 0.001) after administration of study drugs and mivacurium. Plasma cholinesterase also was reduced in Group NS 5 minutes after the administration of mivacurium (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Ondansetrone is believed to be more reliable agent than metoclopramide when used with mivacurium.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to evaluate the hemodynamic and analgesic effects of ketamine by comparing it with propofol starting at the induction of anesthesia until the end of sternotomy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. INTRODUCTION: Anesthetic induction and maintenance may induce myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. A primary goal in the anesthesia of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is both the attenuation of sympathetic responses to noxious stimuli and the prevention of hypotension. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were randomized to receive either ketamine 2 mg.kg-1 (Group K) or propofol 0.5 mg.kg-1 (Group P) during induction of anesthesia. Patients also received standardized doses of midazolam, fentanyl, and rocuronium in the induction sequence. The duration of anesthesia from induction to skin incision and sternotomy, as well as the supplemental doses of fentanyl and sevoflurane, were recorded. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index, systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices, stroke work index, and left and right ventricular stroke work indices were obtained before induction of anesthesia; one minute after induction; one, three, five, and ten minutes after intubation; one minute after skin incision; and at one minute after sternotomy. RESULTS: There were significant changes in the measured and calculated hemodynamic variables when compared to their values before induction. One minute after induction, mean arterial pressure and the systemic vascular resistance index decreased significantly in group P (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: There were no differences between groups in the consumption of sevoflurane or in the use of additional fentanyl. The combination of ketamine, midazolam, and fentanyl for the induction of anesthesia provided better hemodynamic stability during induction and until the end of sternotomy in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.
OBJECTIVES: To compare the landmark-guided technique versus the ultrasound-guided technique for internal jugular vein cannulation in spontaneously breathing patients. METHODS: A total of 380 patients who required internal jugular vein cannulation were randomly assigned to receive internal jugular vein cannulation using either the landmark- or ultrasound-guided technique in Bursa, Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, between April and November, 2008. Failed catheter placement, risk of complications from placement, risk of failure on first attempt at placement, number of attempts until successful catheterization, time to successful catheterization and the demographics of each patient were recorded. RESULTS: The overall complication rate was higher in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group (p < 0.01). Carotid puncture rate and hematoma were more frequent in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group (p < 0.05). The number of attempts for successful placement was significantly higher in the landmark group than in the ultrasound-guided group, which was accompanied by a significantly increased access time observed in the landmark group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Although there were a higher number of attempts, longer access time, and a more frequent complication rate in the landmark group, the success rate was found to be comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that internal jugular vein catheterization guided by real-time ultrasound results in a lower access time and a lower rate of immediate complications.