A very simple, but rich experiment, encompassing a classical Galileo’s pendulum, has been devised to be performed at home, especially during the Covid-19 pandemics. The experiment uses a miniature supermagnet rod as the pendulum oscillating element suspended from a fixed sewing thread. Its physics can be fully investigated, allowing to study the oscillation movements and to extract the gravity acceleration constant. The interaction with chemical substances can be accurately monitored by equilibrating the magnetic attraction of the probe as it opposes the gravity restoring force. Magnetic susceptibilities can be precisely measured in this way, allowing to access the number of unpaired electrons in the compounds, while stimulating discussions in the light of the ligand field theory. The simplicity and the opportunity of joining physics and chemistry are the most relevant aspects of the experiment. Curiously, the pendulum performance also implies a meditation like posture, requiring complete silence and confinement. In this sense it can also help relaxing our mind during the pandemics.
The chemistry and spectroscopy of the iron(II) phenylterpyrazine complex, [Fe(phtpz)2]2+, were investigated in comparison with the analogous phenylterpyridine species, Fe(phtpy)2]2+, and the results indicated a strong electronic delocalization on the Fe(II) terimine chromophore encompassing the lateral pyrazyl groups. The delocalized nature of the molecular orbitals involved in the electronic excitation precluded a direct assignment of the pyridine and pyrazine vibrations in the complex. However, the capability of the terpyrazine complex to bind transition metal ions, such as the [Fe(CN)5]3- species, allowed to generate pentanuclear complexes displaying characteristic charge-transfer and resonance Raman spectra, revealing the pyrazine vibrations in the complex. The [Fe(CN)5]3- containing species also yielded polymeric compounds in presence of transition metal ions, exhibiting intervalence transfer bands and chemical similarities with the Prussian Blue complex.
United Nations elected 2019 a year devoted to the Periodic Table of the Elements, in deference to the original contribution by Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev in 1869. Since then, the impact of the Periodic Table in Science has been tremendous, becoming an icon today as the Chemistry Portal, leading to a better acquaintance of the chemical elements. In this article, modern aspects of the Periodic Table of the Elements are presented, complementing an existing historical presentation in this Journal, with special emphasis on the quantum distribution models and on the remarkable role of the elements in Science and Nanotechnology.
Abstract: Pentacyanidoferrate(II) complexes of aromatic N-heterocycles, such as 4-cyanopyridine, exhibit characteristic colors and strong metallochromism associated with the donor-acceptor interactions of the metal ions with the cyanide ligands. In the presence of transition metal ions insoluble polymeric complexes are formed, displaying bright yellow, red, brown and green colors with zinc(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and iron(III) ions, respectively. Such metallochromic response is better observed on filter paper, allowing applications in analytical spot tests. The effects can be explored visually and probed by means of modern instrumental facilities, including spectrophotometric and resonance Raman techniques. In this way, by using the cyanopyridinepentacyanidoferrates, the Prussian Blue test for ferric ions can be extended to the entire row of transition metal elements, providing a new and modern insight of such classical Feigl’s spot tests.
Magnetic nanohydrometallurgy (NHM) is a new process based on engineered superparamagnetic nanoparticles capable of performing as complexing agents for extracting and recovering strategic metals from mineral sources and urban wastes, as well as for removing hazardous elements from contaminated water. Its principles and application are reviewed in this paper. Typical examples involving copper, silver and mercury processing are here discussed, including the exploitation of a novel nanotechnological strategy for capturing and fractionating rare earth elements.
ABSTRACT The conversion of carbon dioxide into important industrial feedstock is a subject of growing interest in modern society. A possible way to achieve this goal is by carrying out the CO2/methanol cascade reaction, allowing the recycle of CO2 using either chemical catalysts or enzymes. Efficient and selective reactions can be performed by enzymes; however, due to their low stability, immobilization protocols are required to improve their performance. The cascade reaction to reduce carbon dioxide into methanol has been explored by the authors, using, sequentially, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FalDH), and formate dehydrogenase (FDH), powered by NAD+/NADH and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) as the co-enzyme regenerating system. All the enzymes have been immobilized on functionalized magnetite nanoparticles, and their reactions investigated separately in order to establish the best performance conditions. Although the stepwise scheme led to only 2.3% yield of methanol per NADH; in a batch system under CO2 pressure, the combination of the four immobilized enzymes increased the methanol yield by 64 fold. The studies indicated a successful regeneration of NADH in situ, envisaging a real possibility of using immobilized enzymes to perform the cascade CO2-methanol reaction.
The centenary of Alfred Werner's Nobel Prize in Chemistry has prompted this retrospect on his important contributions for the development of stereochemistry and for the understanding of the nature of the coordination compounds. His genealogy has been described, including a discussion on the famous Jørgensen-Werner controversy. As an extension, it has also been reported the German biography of Heinrich Rheinboldt, the founder of the Chemistry School at the University of São Paulo, and his relation with Werner's scientific heritage.
The [Ru3O(Ac)6(py)2(CH3OH)]+ cluster provides an effective electrocatalytic species for the oxidation of methanol under mild conditions. This complex exhibits characteristic electrochemical waves at -1.02, 0.15 and 1.18 V, associated with the Ru3III,II,II/Ru3III,III,II/Ru 3III,III,III /Ru3IV,III,III successive redox couples, respectively. Above 1.7 V, formation of two RuIV centers enhances the 2-electron oxidation of the methanol ligand yielding formaldehyde, in agreement with the theoretical evolution of the HOMO levels as a function of the oxidation states. This work illustrates an important strategy to improve the efficiency of the oxidation catalysis, by using a multicentered redox catalyst and accessing its multiple higher oxidation states.
In gold nanoparticles the surface metal atoms play a major role, determining their chemical and physical properties by interacting with donor-acceptor species or ligands in a similar way as the related metal complexes. In addition, coherent oscillations of the metal electrons in resonance with the frequency of the exciting light give rise to localized surface plasmons responsible for an enhancement of the local electric field and SERS effect, allowing a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology and nanotechnology. Multifunctional bridging ligands can be employed for simultaneously binding metal ions and surface atoms. The attractive point of this approach is the possibility of exploiting the charge controlled stabilization by the metal complexes, while imparting new characteristics and properties to the modified nanoparticles. As a matter of fact, a new, exciting field of coordination chemistry can be envisaged, combining metal nanoparticles and metal complexes, in the light of supramolecular and surface plasmon resonance effects.
Nas nanopartículas de ouro, as propriedades químicas e físicas são ditadas principalmente pelos átomos da superfície, os quais podem interagir com espécies doadoras-aceitadoras, ou ligantes, da mesma forma que os complexos metálicos correspondentes. Além disso, os elétrons podem entrar em ressonância com a luz incidente dando origem aos plasmons de superfície, que levam à intensificação do campo elétrico local e ao efeito SERS, proporcionando uma ampla variedade de aplicações na química, biologia e nanotecnologia. Ligantes de ponte, multifuncionais, podem ser usados para intermediar a ligação de íons metálicos aos átomos de ouro da superfície. Essa estratégia permite controlar a estabilização em solução através das cargas dos complexos metálicos, acrescentando, ao mesmo tempo, novas características químicas e maior funcionalidade às nanopartículas modificadas. Dessa forma, uma nova química de coordenação pode ser vislumbrada, combinando nanopartículas metálicas, como as de ouro, e complexos, à luz da química supramolecular e dos efeitos de ressonância plasmônica de superfície.
Lipase from Burkholderia cepacia immobilized on superparamagnetic nanoparticles using adsorption and chemisorption methodologies was efficiently applied as recyclable biocatalyst in the enzymatic kinetic resolution of (RS)-1-(phenyl)ethanols via transesterification reactions. (R)-Esters and the remaining (S)-alcohols were obtained with excellent enantiomeric excess (> 99%), which corresponds to a perfect process of enzymatic kinetic resolution (conversion 50%, E > 200). The transesterification reactions catalysed with B. cepacia lipase immobilized by the glutaraldehyde method showed the best results in terms of reusability, preserving the enzyme activity (conversion 50%, E > 200) for at least 8 successive cycles.
A lipase proveniente da Burkholderia cepacia imobilizada em nanopartículas superparamagnéticas usando diferentes metodologias de imobilização (adsorção e quimiosorção) foi eficientemente aplicada como biocatalisador reciclável na resolução cinética de (RS)-1-(fenil)etanols através de reações de transesterificação. Os (R)-ésteres e os (S)-alcoóis foram obtidos com excelente excesso enantiomérico (> 99%), o que corresponde a um perfeito processo de resolução cinética enzimática (conversão 50%, E > 200). As reações de transesterificação catalisadas pela lipase de B. cepacia imobilizada pela metodologia com glutaraldeído apresentaram os melhores resultados em termos de conversão após 8 ciclos de reação.
It is proposed a simple and inexpensive strategy to determine singlet oxygen (¹O2) quantum yields (ΦΔ) of photosensitizers (PS) in water using beetroot extract containing betacyanin (Bc) and a set of light emitting diodes (LEDs) for excitation. Bc, a cationic natural dye, was obtained by flash chromatography purification from the red beet extract (Beta vulgaris) and employed as a convenient probe for ¹O2 detection. Solutions of Bc and PS were illuminated with an array of LEDs adapted in the cuvette compartment of a commercial spectrophotometer, and the decrease in Bc absorbance was followed as a function of time. Bc photobleaching decreased in de-aerated solution and increased in D2O, indicating the involvement of ¹O2. The observed photobleaching rate constant (k obs) was proportional to the LED intensity, concentration and ΦΔ of the PS. By keeping the light source constant we could estimate the overlap integral (R) between the LED emission and PS absorbance for different PS concentrations. The slope of R versus k obs is the value of the photobleaching rate constant (k), which was shown to be proportional to ΦΔ. Values of ΦΔ obtained by this method were compared with those obtained by measuring NIR (near infrared) emission for a series phenothiazine dyes.
É proposta uma estratégia simples e barata para determinar rendimentos quânticos (ΦΔ) de oxigênio singlete (¹O2) de fotossensibilizadores (PS) em água utilizando extrato de beterraba contendo betacianina (Bc) e um conjunto de diodos emissores de luz (LEDs) para excitação. Bc, um corante catiônico natural, foi obtida por purificação através de cromatografia a partir do extrato de beterraba vermelha (Beta vulgaris), e utilizada como uma sonda para detecção de ¹O2. Soluções do Bc e PS foram iluminadas com um arranjo de LEDs adaptado no compartimento de um espectrofotômetro comercial e a diminuição da absorvância de Bc foi seguida em função do tempo. O fotobranqueamento de Bc diminuiu em solução purgada com nitrogênio e aumentou em D2O, indicando o envolvimento de ¹O2. A constante de velocidade de fotobranqueamento observada (k obs) foi proporcional à intensidade do LED, à concentração e ao ΦΔ do PS. Mantendo a fonte de luz constante pudemos estimar a integral de sobreposição (R) entre a absorção do PS e a emissão do LED para diferentes concentrações de PS. A inclinação da curva de R em função de k obs é o valor da constante de velocidade de fotobranqueamento (k), que foi mostrada ser proporcional a ΦΔ. Valores de ΦΔ obtidos por este método foram comparados com aqueles obtidos através da medição da emissão no NIR (infravermelho próximo) para uma série de corantes fenotiazínicos.
A new tetraruthenated copper(II)-tetra(3,4-pyridyl)porphyrazine species, [CuTRPyPz]4+, has been synthesized and fully characterized by means of analytical, spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. This À-conjugated system contrasts with the related meso-tetrapyridylporphyrins by exhibiting strong electronic interaction between the coordinated peripheral complexes and the central ring. Based on favorable À-stacking and electrostatic interactions, layer-by-layer assembled films were successfully generated from the appropriate combination of [CuTRPyPz]4+ with copper(II)-tetrasulfonated phtalocyanine, [CuTSPc]4-. Their conducting and electrocatalytic properties were investigated by means of impedance spectroscopy and rotating disc voltammetry, exhibiting metallic behavior near the Ru(III/II) redox potential, as well as enhanced catalytic activity for the oxidation of nitrite and sulphite ions.
Uma nova espécie cobre(II)-tetra(3,4-piridil) porfirazina tetrarrutenada, [CuTRPyPz]4+ foi sintetizada e sua caracterização conduzida por meio de métodos analíticos, espectroscópicos e eletroquímicos. Sua extensa conjugação-À a distingue dos derivados análogos da meso-tetrapiridilporfirina, levando à ocorrência de interações eletrônicas mais fortes entre os complexos periféricos e o anel porfirazínico central. Com base nas interações eletrostáticas e de empilhamento-À, foram realizadas montagens, camada-por-camada, de filmes funcionais, combinando-se a [CuTRPyPz]4+ com a ftalocianina de cobre(II) tetrassulfonada, [CuTSPc]4-. As propriedades condutoras e eletrocatalíticas desses filmes foram investigadas através de técnicas de impedância e de voltametria de disco rotatório, observando-se um comportamento metálico nas proximidades do potencial do par redox Ru(III)/(II), bem como uma pronunciada atividade catalítica na oxidação de íons nitrito e sulfito, em meio aquoso.