A total of 283 Salmonella Typhimurium strains isolated from cases of human infections and non human sources, were examined for antimicrobial susceptibilityand the incidence of resistance was 38% and multiple resistance (to three or more antimicrobials) was 15%. All 43 multidrug-resistant strains (MDR) and 13 susceptible ones were characterized by phage typing and pulsed- field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The strains encompassed 14 definitive phage types (DT), three were untypable (UT), and 18 atypicals or reaction does not conform (RDNC), which belonged to 21 PFGE patterns, A1-A21. The predominant phage types were DT49, DT193, and RDNC and two strains belonging to DT 104 and 104b were also identified. The most commum PFGE patterns were A1 and A8. Analysis by PFGE and phage typing demonstrated that the most of the MDR were multiclonal and association among multiresistance, phage typing, and PFGE patterns was not so significant.
The enteropathogenic role of cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF)-producing Escherichia coli was investigated by searching cnf genes among 2074 isolates from 200 children with and 200 without acute diarrhea in Brazil. Fourteen (7%) cases versus 10 (5%) control children carried at least one cnf positive isolate (P = 0.50) and most isolates expressed CNF type 1. DNA sequences of virulence factors of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) were detected in 78.6% of CNF1-producing isolates. Besides not being associated with human acute diarrhea, the CNF1-producing isolates here identified may represent potential ExPEC transitorily composing the normal intestinal flora.
Hundred and fifty frozen broiler carcasses of four commercial brands, purchased at retail stores for Salmonella research, were examined: 43 of the carcasses referred to each of the brands A, B, D and 21 of brand C. Thirty-two percent of the samples were found positive; 11 serotypes were identified as S. Agona, S. Anatum, S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Havana, S. Mbandaka, S. Montevideo, S. Ouakam, S. Poona, S. Schwarzengrund and S.I4, 5, 12:-. Antibiogram testing of the isolated strains showed 100% resistance to ampicilin, 75.0% to cefhalotin, 52.1% to cephoxitin, 22.9% to tobramicin, 6.2% to polimixin B and to tetracyclines, 4.2% to gentamicin, and 2.1% to netilmicin, to aztreonam and to amicacin. All strains showed total sensibility to chloramphenicol and to sulfazotrim.
Um total de 150 carcaças de frango congeladas, de quatro marcas comerciais, foram analisadas para pesquisa de Salmonella. Foram examinadas 43 carcaças de cada uma das marcas A, B, D e 21 da marca C. Observou-se um percentual de 32,0% de contaminação. Foram identificados 11 sorotipos: S. Agona, S. Anatum, S. Enteritidis, S. Hadar, S. Havana, S. Mbandaka, S. Montevideo, S. Ouakam, S. Poona, S. Schwarzengrund e S. I 4, 5, 12: -. O antibiograma das cepas mostrou 100% de resistência à ampicilina, 75,0% à cefalotina, 52,1% à cefoxitina, 22,9% à tobramicina, 6,2% à polimixina B e à tetraciclina, 4,2% à gentamicina e 2,1% à netilmicina, ao aztreonam e à amicacina. Todas as cepas apresentaram sensibilidade total ao cloranfenicol e ao sulfazotrim.
Among S. typhimurium and S. agona strains isolated during the period from 1971 to 1987, the biotypes, colicine types and resistance patterns were determined for 734 S. typhimurium and 631 S. agona strains. Among 734 S. typhimurium strains 65 biotypes were disclosed with prevalence of biotypes 1a (28,34%), 1b (29,84%) and 9bi (18,28). Concerning S. agona, the biotype 1a represented by 87,16%, was the commonest clone among our strains. Although colicine typing added little information to characterize these serotypes, it should be usefull when applied in epidemilogical study of outbreaks. It was observed multiply antimicrobial resistance mainly among human strains, particularly from nosocomial origins.
Entre as cepas de S. typhimurium e S. agona isoladas no período 1971-1987 foram caracterizados os biotipos, colicinotipos e antibiotipos de 734 cepas de S. typhimurium e 631 de S. agona. As 734 cepas de S. typhimurium foram classificadas em 65 biotipos com o predomínio dos biotipos 1a com 28,34%, 1b com 29,84% e 9bi com 18,25%. Com relação a S. agona, o biotipo 1a com 87,16% representou entre nós o clone amplamente disseminado. Foram encontradas freqüências baixas de cepas colicinogênicas, entretanto, a colicinotipia parece ser um bom método quando aplicada ao estudo de amostras homogêneas provenientes de surtos. Acentuada multirresistência aos agentes antimicrobianos, foi observada principalmente entre aquelas cepas de origem humana quase sempre representadas por cepas hospitalares