Abstract Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent event after cardiac surgery with increased mortality and morbidity. We explored frequency, risk factors, and associated morbidity and mortality of AKI after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery at a single institution. Methods: All consecutive adults undergoing CABG surgery from March 2013 to October 2016 were assessed for development and severity of AKI based on Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. The patients were also investigated regarding their need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), predictive risk factors, and associated outcomes, including duration of mechanical ventilation, mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay. Results: Of 1737 patients in the study, 275 (15.8%) developed AKI. Twenty-five (12.8%) cases required RRT. Patients with AKI had longer ventilation time, ICU and hospital length of stay (P<0.001). Mortality rates were 28 (10.2%) and 22 (1.5%) in patients with and without AKI, respectively (P<0.001). There was a strong association between advanced age (aOR=1.016, 95% CI=1.002-1.030, P=0.028), diabetes (aOR=1.36, 95% CI=1.022-1.809, P=0.035), on-pump surgery (aOR=2.63, 95% CI=1.543-4.483, P<0.001), transfusion of more than 1 unit of red blood cells (aOR=2.154, 95% CI=1.237-3.753, P=0.007), and prolonged mechanical ventilation and development of AKI (aOR=2.697, 95% CI=1.02407.071, P<0.001). AKI was seen less frequently in those with opium abuse (aOR=0.613, 95% CI=0.409-0.921, P=0.018). Conclusion: We demonstrated that advanced age, diabetes, on-pump surgery, red blood cell transfusion, and prolonged mechanical ventilation were independent positive risk factors for the development of AKI after isolated CABG while opium abuse was a protective factor.
Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of perioperative administration of N-acetylcysteine, selenium and vitamin C on the incidence and outcomes of acute kidney injury after off-pump coronary bypass graft surgery. Methods: 291 patients requiring elective off-pump coronary bypass graft surgery were randomized to receive either N-acetylcysteine, vitamin C and selenium 600 mg, 1500 mg, 0.5 mg, and nothing orally twice a day, respectively, from the day before to 2 days after surgery. They were assessed for the development of acute kidney injury using Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, time of onset, its severity and duration, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and in-hospital mortality. Results: 272 patients completed the study. The total incidence of acute kidney injury was 22.1% (n=60) with 14 (20.9%), 15 (22.1%), 21 (31.8%), and 10 (14.1%) patients in the vitamin C, NAC, selenium, and control groups, respectively (P=0.096). We did not register significant differences in the incidence, the time of occurrence, the severity and the duration of acute kidney injury, as well as the duration of mechanical ventilation, the intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and the in-hospital mortality among the four groups. Conclusion: We found that perioperative administration of N-acetylcysteine, vitamin C and selenium were not effective in preventing acute kidney injury and associated morbidity and mortality after off-pump coronary bypass graft surgery.
Abstract Introduction: The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II (EuroSCORE II) is a prediction model which maps 18 predictors to a 30-day post-operative risk of death concentrating on accurate stratification of candidate patients for cardiac surgery. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the performance of the EuroSCORE II risk-analysis predictions among patients who underwent heart surgeries in one area of Iran. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to collect the required variables for all consecutive patients who underwent heart surgeries at Emam Reza hospital, Northeast Iran between 2014 and 2015. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify covariates which significantly contribute to higher EuroSCORE II in our population. External validation was performed by comparing the real and expected mortality using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for discrimination assessment. Also, Brier Score and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test were used to show the overall performance and calibration level, respectively. Results: Two thousand five hundred eight one (59.6% males) were included. The observed mortality rate was 3.3%, but EuroSCORE II had a prediction of 4.7%. Although the overall performance was acceptable (Brier score=0.047), the model showed poor discriminatory power by AUC=0.667 (sensitivity=61.90, and specificity=66.24) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P<0.01). Conclusion: Our study showed that the EuroSCORE II discrimination power is less than optimal for outcome prediction and less accurate for resource allocation programs. It highlights the need for recalibration of this risk stratification tool aiming to improve post cardiac surgery outcome predictions in Iran.