BACKGROUND: Even students with previous academic success may face challenges that affect their academic performance. Many medical schools offer programs to students at the risk of academic failure, to ensure that they succeed in the course. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this report we describe a pioneering academic tutoring program developed at a Brazilian medical school and discuss the initial results of the program based on the feedback from tutors and data regarding the progression of students in the medical course. RESULTS: In 2018, 33 students enrolled into the program. Students' performance difficulties were mainly associated with mental health problems and socioeconomic vulnerability. Of the 33 students, 27 (81.8%) were assisted by the Mental Health Support Service and 16 (48.5%) were assisted by the Social Assistance Service. In addition to the planning academic activity class load, tutors were able to assist students in solving socioeconomic issues, carrying out personal support interventions with the promotion of self-esteem, and presenting suggestions for behavioral changes in their routine. For most students (72%), the action plan proposed by the tutors was successful. Eight of the 14 (57%) students in the fourth year progressed to the final two years of in-hospital practical training (internship). CONCLUSIONS: The Academic Tutoring Program showed positive results for most of the students. Close monitoring and tutor intervention allowed students with poor academic performance to overcome the low performance cycle. These important tasks demand time and energy from tutors, and institutional recognition of these professionals is essential for the successful maintenance of the program.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the best mode for diagnosing and treating the patients with choledochal cysts. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with medical records of patients diagnosed with choledochal cysts from January 1994 to December 2017. In all cases, the diagnosis was based on ultrasound examination. All the patients underwent cyst resection and were divided in two groups: bile enteric anastomosis in the high portion of the common hepatic duct or in the dilated lower portion. RESULTS: Eighty-one cases were studied. The age of presentation was 4 y 2 mo ± 4 y 1 mo, and the age for the surgical treatment was 5 y 5 mo ± 4 y 6 mo. In 61 cases, US was the only image examination performed. There were 67 cases of Todani type I (82.7%), 13 cases of type IV (16.0%) and one case of type III (1.2%). Nine patients (29.0%) in the first period and 2 patients (4.0%) in the second period presented with postoperative complications (p=0.016). CONCLUSION: In patients with choledochal cysts, US is the only necessary diagnostic imaging. Performing the bile enteric anastomosis in the lower portion of the common hepatic duct is safer and has a lower risk of complications.
OBJECTIVES: In cirrhotic children, infection events and sepsis are more frequent and more severe due to immune dysfunction. The objectives of the current study were therefore to develop an experimental model of infection and sepsis in cirrhotic weaning growing rats, by the use of bile duct ligation (BDL) and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Additionally, the correlation of the clinico-histopathological data and serial cytokine levels in septic cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic animals was studied. METHODS: Young Wistar rats of age 21 days and of weight between 70-90 g were divided into 12 groups according to the surgical procedure performed: sham (sacrificed after 2 or 4 weeks), BDL (sacrificed after 2 or 4 weeks), CLP (2- or 4-week old animals sacrificed after 12 or 24 hours), BDL+CLP (2- or 4-week old animals sacrificed after 12 hours). Histopathological studies and determination of serum levels of cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-10, and TNF-alpha, for studies of systemic infection, were performed. Murine sepsis scores (MSS) based on the clinical aspects just before euthanasia were also included. RESULTS: A transitory increase in IL-1, IL-10, and TNF-alpha levels was observed, with different patterns according to the groups. Two-hit groups tended to present with higher values of serum cytokines and histopathological scores than their septic non-cirrhotic counterparts. There was a correlation between mortality rate and MSS (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The model is feasible and may be utilized in studies on liver cirrhosis and infection in growing animals.
SUMMARY Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is the leading cause of intestinal failure in children, a condition of absence of sufficient bowel to meet the nutritional and metabolic needs of a growing individual. The treatment of patients in this situation is based on the association of parenteral and enteral nutrition for prolonged periods of time until intestinal rehabilitation occurs with complete enteral nutrition autonomy. Six consecutive cases of children with SBS (residual intestinal length of 5 cm to 75 cm) were managed with this program and were diagnosed with associated hypothyroidism during the treatment (ages at the diagnosis 5 months to 12 years). All patients were successfully treated with oral hormone reposition therapy and in one patient, the replacement was performed via rectal enemas due to a complete absence of small bowel. Although iodine deficiency associated to long-term parenteral nutrition is a well-known condition, this is the first report in the literature about an expressive number of patients with hypothyroidism detected in patients with SBS during the prolonged treatment for intestinal rehabilitation.
OBJECTIVE: The prognosis of patients with biliary atresia undergoing Kasai portoenterostomy is related to the timing of the diagnosis and the indication for the procedure. The purpose of the present study is to present a practical flowchart based on 257 children who underwent Kasai portoenterostomy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent Kasai portoenterostomy between 1981 and 2016. RESULTS: During the first period (1981 to 2009), 230 infants were treated, and the median age at the time of surgery was 84 days; jaundice was resolved in 77 patients (33.5%). During the second period, from 2010 to 2016, a new diagnostic approach was adopted to shorten the wait time for portoenterostomy; an ultrasonography examination suggestive of the disease was followed by primary surgical exploration of the biliary tract without complementary examination or liver biopsy. Once the diagnosis of biliary atresia was confirmed, a portoenterostomy was performed during the same surgery. During this period, 27 infants underwent operations; the median age at the time of surgery was 66 days (p<0.001), and jaundice was resolved in 15 patients (55.6% - p=0.021), with a survival rate of the native liver of 66.7%. CONCLUSION: Primary surgical exploration of the biliary tract without previous biopsy was effective at improving the prognostic indicators of patients with biliary atresia undergoing Kasai portoenterostomy.
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to present an experimental model of short bowel syndrome (SBS) in weaning rats and to compare the adaptative mechanisms of the remaining bowel in weaning rats and adult animals by means of morphometric, histologic and molecular methods. METHODS: Twenty-four weaning rats were divided into 3 groups of 8 animals, one control group and two short bowel groups (euthanasia after 4 and 21 days), and were compared with similar adult groups. Morphometric evaluations of the animals and histopathological and molecular studies of the remaining bowel were performed. RESULTS: The weight of young rats increased after enterectomy, whereas that of adult rats decreased after enterectomy (p<0.0001). The ratio of intestinal length/body weight was significantly higher in weaning rats than in adults (p<0.002), showing that intestinal growth was more intense in weaning rats. Intestinal resection promoted increased thickness of the small bowel lamina propria (p=0.001) and reduced thickness of the colon lamina propria (p=0.04) in weaning rats relative to those in adults. In addition, intestinal resection promoted increased expression of the Bcl-xl gene (antiapoptotic) in adult animals compared with that in weaning rats (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Morphometric, histological and molecular differences were shown in the adaptation processes of growing and mature organisms.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research was to compare language development (expressive and receptive skills) in children awaiting liver transplantation with that of children who have already undergone the surgical procedure. METHODS: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted with 76 children divided into groups, as follows: 31 children who were candidates for liver transplantation (Group 1; G1), 45 children who had already undergone liver transplantation (Group 2; G2), and a control group (CG) of 60 healthy, normally developing children. Health status information was gathered, and the Test of Early Language Development (TELD)-3 was used to assess language skills. Family household monthly income data were also gathered using a specific questionnaire. RESULTS: G1 had poorer language performance compared with G2 and the CG. G2 had lower language performance when compared with the CG. However, when considering the TELD-3 standard scores, G2 had scores within normal limits. The regression analysis indicated age as a risk factor for language deficits in Group 1 and family income as a risk factor for language deficits in G2. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that children with chronic liver disease have delays in language development. Transplanted children have linguistic performance within normal limits, but their scores tended to be lower than the CG.
Summary Introduction: Patients operated for correction of anorectal malformations (ARM) can develop fecal incontinence, constipation, and soiling, with loss in quality of life. Objective: To evaluate, through the use of questionnaires, fecal continence, and quality of life of children in the late postoperative follow-up of ARM correction, both high and low. In addition, the levels of fecal continence and quality of life were compared with those of a control group. Method: A Fecal Continence Index Questionnaire (ICF) and a Questionnaire for Assessment of Quality of Life Related to Fecal Continence in Children and Adolescents (QQVCFCA) were administered to 63 patients with ARM, aged from 7 to 19 years, whose surgical treatment had been completed for at least 6 months. The patients were compared to a control group of 59 children. Results: In the control group, 25 (42.4%) patients had good continence and 34 (57.6%), normal continence. We found that the quality of life in children with ARM is compromised globally, in all areas and in the ICF questionnaire, compared to controls (p<0.001). There was no difference between patients with high and low defects. Thirty-two (50.8%) patients had other associated anomalies. Conclusion: In patients operated for ARM correction, quality of life and ICF were compromised, and there was no difference between patients with high-type and low-type of the disease. In about half the cases there are other associated malformations.
Resumo Introdução: os pacientes operados para correção de malformações anorretais (MAR) podem evoluir com incontinência fecal, constipação e soiling, com prejuízo na qualidade de vida. Objetivo: avaliar pela aplicação de questionários a continência fecal e a qualidade de vida de crianças no seguimento pós-operatório tardio de correção de MAR, formas altas e baixas. Também foram comparados os índices de continência fecal e qualidade de vida com um grupo controle de crianças. Método: foram utilizados o Questionário para o Índice de Continência Fecal (ICF) e o Questionário para Avaliar a Qualidade de Vida Relativa à Continência Fecal em Crianças e Adolescentes (QQVCFCA). Os questionários foram aplicados em 63 pacientes de 7 a 19 anos com MAR, com tratamento cirúrgico finalizado há pelo menos 6 meses. Os pacientes foram comparados com um grupo controle de 59 crianças. Resultados: nos pacientes do grupo controle, 25 (42,4%) apresentaram boa continência e 34 (57,6%), normal. A qualidade de vida nas crianças com MAR está comprometida globalmente, em todos os domínios e no ICF, quando comparada com a dos controles (p<0,001). Não houve diferença entre os pacientes com anomalias altas e anomalias baixas. Trinta e dois (50,8%) pacientes apresentaram outras anomalias associadas. Conclusão: nos pacientes operados para correção de MAR, qualidade de vida e ICF foram comprometidos, não havendo diferença entre os pacientes com as formas altas ou baixas da doença. Em cerca de metade dos casos existem outras malformações associadas.
Summary The main cause of acute intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, generally as a result of resection of extensive segments of small intestine. As a result, the main symptoms are watery diarrhea, malabsorption syndrome, chronic malnutrition, and death, if the patient is not properly treated. If the length of the remaining intestine is greater than 30 cm, complete adaptation is possible and the patient may not require parenteral nutrition. The currently recommended treatment includes the use of prolonged parenteral nutrition and enteral nutrition, always aimed at constant weight gain, in conjunction with surgeries aimed at elongating the dilated bowel. This set of procedures constitutes what is called an Intestinal Rehabilitation Program. This therapy was used in 16 children in periods ranging from 8 months to 7.5 years, with survival in 75% of the cases. Finally, the last resort to be used in children with complete resection of the small bowel is an intestinal transplant. However, to date there is no record of a Brazilian child that has survived this procedure, despite it being attempted in seven patients. We conclude that the results of the intestinal rehabilitation program are encouraging for the continuation of this type of treatment and stimulate the creation of the program in other pediatric care institutions.
Resumo A principal causa da falência intestinal aguda é a síndrome do intestino encurtado, decorrente, em geral, de ressecção de extensos segmentos de intestino delgado. Em consequência, os principais sintomas são diarreia aquosa, síndrome de má absorção, desnutrição crônica e óbito, caso o paciente não seja adequadamente tratado. Se o comprimento do intestino remanescente for superior a 30 cm, poderá haver adaptação completa e o paciente poderá ficar livre da nutrição parenteral. O tratamento atualmente preconizado inclui a utilização de nutrição parenteral prolongada e de nutrição enteral, objetivando sempre o ganho ponderal constante, em paralelo a cirurgias que visem ao alongamento do intestino dilatado. Esse conjunto de procedimentos constitui o que se denomina Programa de Reabilitação Intestinal. Essa terapia foi utilizada em 16 crianças, em períodos que variaram de 8 meses a 7 anos e meio, com sobrevida em 75% dos casos. O último recurso utilizado em crianças com ressecção completa do intestino delgado é o transplante intestinal. Até o momento, não há registro de criança brasileira que tenha sobrevivido a esse procedimento, a despeito de sete pacientes terem sido submetidos a ele. Os resultados do Programa de Reabilitação Intestinal nos anima a continuar com esse tipo de tratamento e estimular a criação do programa em outras instituições de atendimento pediátrico.
OBJECTIVE: Chronic rejection remains a major cause of graft failure with indication for re-transplantation. The incidence of chronic rejection remains high in the pediatric population. Although several risk factors have been implicated in adults, the prognostic factors for the evolution and reversibility of chronic rejection in pediatric liver transplantation are not known. Hence, the current study aimed to determine the factors involved in the progression or reversibility of pediatric chronic rejection by evaluating a series of chronic rejection cases following liver transplantation. METHODS: Chronic rejection cases were identified by performing liver biopsies on patients based on clinical suspicion. Treatment included maintaining high levels of tacrolimus and the introduction of mofetil mycophenolate. The children were divided into 2 groups: those with favorable outcomes and those with adverse outcomes. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors in these groups. RESULTS: Among 537 children subjected to liver transplantation, chronic rejection occurred in 29 patients (5.4%). In 10 patients (10/29, 34.5%), remission of chronic rejection was achieved with immunosuppression (favorable outcomes group). In the remaining 19 patients (19/29, 65.5%), rejection could not be controlled (adverse outcomes group) and resulted in re-transplantation (7 patients, 24.1%) or death (12 patients, 41.4%). Statistical analysis showed that the presence of ductopenia was associated with worse outcomes (risk ratio=2.08, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: The presence of ductopenia is associated with poor prognosis in pediatric patients with chronic graft rejection.
Abstract Objective: Surgical treatment of anorectal malformations (ARMs) and Hirschsprung's disease (HD) leads to alterations in bowel habits and fecal incontinence, with consequent quality of life impairment. The objectives were to create and validate a Questionnaire for the Fecal Incontinence Index (FII) based on the Holschneider score, as well as a Questionnaire for the Assessment of Quality of Life Related to Fecal Incontinence in Children and Adolescents (QQVCFCA), based on the Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life. Methods: The questionnaires were applied to 71 children submitted to surgical procedure, in two stages. Validity was tested by comparing the QQVCFCA and a generic quality of life questionnaire (SF-36), and between QQVCFCA and the FII. A group of 59 normal children was used as control. Results: At two stages, 45.0% (32/71) and 42.8% (21/49) of the patients had fecal incontinence. It was observed that the QQVCFCA showed a significant correlation with the SF-36 and FII (Pearson's correlation 0.57), showing that the quality of life is directly proportional to improvement in fecal incontinence. Quality of life in patients with fecal incontinence is still globally impaired, when compared with control subjects (p<0.05, Student's t-test). There were also significant differences between the results of children with ARMs and children with HD. Conclusions: QQVCFCA and FII are useful tools to assess the quality of life and fecal incontinence in these groups of children. Children with ARMs submitted to surgical procedure and HD have similar quality of life impairment.
RESUMO Objetivo: O tratamento cirúrgico das malformações anorretais (MAR) e da doença de Hirschsprung (DH) leva a alterações do hábito intestinal e incontinência fecal com prejuízo da qualidade de vida. Os objetivos foram criar e validar o Questionário para o Índice de Continência Fecal (ICF), baseado no Holschneider Criteria, bem como o Questionário para Avaliar a Qualidade de Vida Relativa à Continência Fecal em Crianças e Adolescentes (QQVCFCA), baseado no Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life. Métodos: Os questionários foram aplicados em 71 crianças operadas, em duas etapas. A validade foi testada por meio da comparação do QQVCFCA e um questionário genérico de qualidade de vida (SF-36) e entre o QQVCFCA e o ICF. Um grupo de 59 crianças normais foi usado como controle. Resultados: Nas duas etapas, 45,0% (32/71) e 42,8% (21/49) dos pacientes apresentaram incontinência fecal. Verificou-se que o QQVCFCA apresentou correlação significativa com o SF-36 e o ICF (correlação de Pearson 0,57) e mostrou que a qualidade de vida é diretamente proporcional à melhoria da continência fecal. A qualidade de vida no paciente com incontinência fecal está ainda comprometida globalmente, em comparação com os indivíduos controles (p<0,05; teste t de Student). Não houve ainda diferença significativa entre os resultados de crianças com MAR e crianças com DH. Conclusões: O QQVCFCA e o ICF são instrumentos úteis para a avaliação da qualidade de vida e da incontinência fecal nesses grupos de crianças. Crianças operadas de MAR e DH apresentam comprometimentos semelhantes da qualidade de vida.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to summarize the experience of a tertiary center in treating hepatoblastoma for the last 21 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight cases were included. The tumor extent and prognosis were assessed using the PRETEXT system. The following data were analyzed: age at diagnosis, comorbidities, prematurity, treatment modalities, histopathological findings, surgical details and complications, treatment outcomes, chemotherapy schedules, side effects and complications. Treatment outcomes included the occurrence of local or distant recurrence, the duration of survival and the cause of death. The investigation methods were ultrasonography, CT scan, serum alpha-fetoprotein level measurement and needle biopsy. Chemotherapy was then planned, and the resectability of the tumor was reevaluated via another CT scan. RESULTS: The mean numbers of neoadjuvant cycles and postoperative cycles of chemotherapy were 6±2 and 1.5±1.7, respectively. All children except one were submitted for surgical resection, including 50 partial liver resections and 7 liver transplantations. Statistical comparisons demonstrated that long-term survival was associated with the absence of metastasis ( p= 0.04) and the type of surgery (resection resulted in a better outcome than transplantation) ( p= 0.009). No associations were found between vascular invasion, incomplete resection, histological subtype, multicentricity and survival. The overall 5-year survival rate of the operated cases was 87.7%. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the experience of a Brazilian tertiary center in the management of hepatoblastoma in children demonstrates that long survival is associated with the absence of metastasis and the type of surgery. A multidisciplinary treatment involving chemotherapy, surgical resection and liver transplantation (including transplantations using tissue from living donors) led to good outcomes and survival indexes.
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury occurs in several clinical conditions and after intestinal transplantation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenomena of apoptosis and cell proliferation in a previously described intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury autograft model using immunohistochemical markers. The molecular mechanisms involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury repair were also investigated by measuring the expression of the early activation genes c-fos and c-jun, which induce apoptosis and cell proliferation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar rats were subjected to surgery for a previously described ischemia-reperfusion model that preserved the small intestine, the cecum and the ascending colon. Following reperfusion, the cecum was harvested at different time points as a representative segment of the intestine. The rats were allocated to the following four subgroups according to the reperfusion time: subgroup 1: 5 min; subgroup 2: 15 min; subgroup 3: 30 min; and subgroup 4: 60 min. A control group of cecum samples was also collected. The expression of c-fos, c-jun and immunohistochemical markers of cell proliferation and apoptosis (Ki67 and TUNEL, respectively) was studied. RESULTS: The expression of both c-fos and c-jun in the cecum was increased beginning at 5 min after ischemia-reperfusion compared with the control. The expression of c-fos began to increase at 5 min, peaked at 30 min, and exhibited a declining tendency at 60 min after reperfusion. A progressive increase in c-jun expression was observed. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed these observations. CONCLUSION: The early activation of the c-fos and c-jun genes occurred after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, and these genes can act together to trigger cell proliferation and apoptosis.