OBJECTIVE: With the increasing prevalence of steatosis, the number of steatotic liver grafts from deceased donors is also increasing. Thus, determining the prevalence and the population risk factors of steatosis may assist in risk stratification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of steatosis and steatohepatitis among livers from adults who died due to non-burn trauma. METHODS: Specimens were collected from 224 adults undergoing autopsy at a regional autopsy referral center from September 2011 to April 2013. Histopathological examination was performed on six samples obtained from different lobes of each liver. The outcomes of interest were the presence of steatosis, steatohepatitis, NASH inflammation and NASH fibrosis. The main predictors were body mass index, abdominal circumference, liver weight and volume, presence of cholelithiasis, and siderosis. Our modeling strategy made use of a series of generalized linear models with a binomial family. RESULTS: Our sample had a mean age of 40 years; steatosis was diagnosed in 48.2% of cases, and steatohepatitis was diagnosed in 2.7%. The presence of a high proportion of fatty changes was more prevalent among males and older individuals, with the most affected age group being 41-60 years. When evaluating the crude odds ratio for steatosis, the factors significantly associated with an increased risk of steatosis were greater abdominal circumference, BMI, and liver weight and the presence of siderosis. CONCLUSION: Our study reinforces the role of older age, obesity and hepatomegaly as predictors of fatty liver disease. These variables should be considered in the assessment of fatty changes in the livers of potential liver donors.
Pancreatic cancer is the second most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract in the US, and adenocarcinoma has been identified as the most common type of pancreatic cancer. Different types of pancreatic cancers have been classified: adenocarcinoma, ductal adenosquamous carcinoma, solid pseudopapillary tumors, endocrine neoplasms, acinar cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, cystic tumors, primary lymphoma of the pancreas, and metastatic lesions of the pancreas. Adenosquamous carcinoma is extremely rare, behave in a very aggressive way and is responsible for the 1 to 4% of the pancreatic exocrine neoplastic lesions. We describe the case of an 82-years-old African American female, presenting to our institution with quantifiable weight loss (12 kg in 3 months), jaundice and abdominal pain. On admission, laboratory tests were obtained: total bilirubin: 11.07 mg/dl with a direct fraction of 10.32 mg/dl. Cross-sectional abdominal CT scan with contrast, showed a lesion localized in the pancreatic head (hypodense on T1, measuring 3.5 x 3.5 x 2.5 cm), with vascular invasion of the portal vein. EUS showed a solid, hypoechoic, not well-defined lesion (measuring 3.98 x 3.80 cm), localized between the head and neck of the pancreas. EUS-FNA was performed with a 22G needle using the fanning technique. The cytological specimens demonstrated components of both squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent ERCP procedure, and biliary drainage was performed with an entirely covered metallic stent placement. After a month from the procedures, the patient died due to the severity of the disease. Endoscopic ultrasound has proven to be the best method to diagnose solid pancreatic lesions, including rare and aggressive type of tumors like primary adenosquamous cell carcinoma that we described in this very interesting case report
OBJECTIVE: Chronic rejection remains a major cause of graft failure with indication for re-transplantation. The incidence of chronic rejection remains high in the pediatric population. Although several risk factors have been implicated in adults, the prognostic factors for the evolution and reversibility of chronic rejection in pediatric liver transplantation are not known. Hence, the current study aimed to determine the factors involved in the progression or reversibility of pediatric chronic rejection by evaluating a series of chronic rejection cases following liver transplantation. METHODS: Chronic rejection cases were identified by performing liver biopsies on patients based on clinical suspicion. Treatment included maintaining high levels of tacrolimus and the introduction of mofetil mycophenolate. The children were divided into 2 groups: those with favorable outcomes and those with adverse outcomes. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors in these groups. RESULTS: Among 537 children subjected to liver transplantation, chronic rejection occurred in 29 patients (5.4%). In 10 patients (10/29, 34.5%), remission of chronic rejection was achieved with immunosuppression (favorable outcomes group). In the remaining 19 patients (19/29, 65.5%), rejection could not be controlled (adverse outcomes group) and resulted in re-transplantation (7 patients, 24.1%) or death (12 patients, 41.4%). Statistical analysis showed that the presence of ductopenia was associated with worse outcomes (risk ratio=2.08, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: The presence of ductopenia is associated with poor prognosis in pediatric patients with chronic graft rejection.