Abstract Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are a global public health problem. Urethritis are among the most common STIs, and can cause several complications and facilitate the transmission of the HIV virus. Objectives: To investigate the main etiologic agents of urethritis in 170 men treated at Fundação Alfredo da Matta. Methods: To identify the agents, urethral exudate and urine were collected. Gram and culture tests were performed in Thayer-Martin medium for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and polymerase chain reaction for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and herpes simplex types 1 and 2. Results: N. gonorrhoeae were identified in 102 (60.0%) patients, C. trachomatis in 50 (29.4%), U. urealyticum in 29 (17.0%), M. genitalium in 11 (6.5 %), U. parvum in ten (5.9%), and M. hominis in seven (4.1%). Herpes simplex type 2 was diagnosed in 24 (21.6%) of the 111 patients who underwent PCR for this pathogen. In 69 cases there was co-infection; the most frequent were: N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis in 21 (14.7%) patients; N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis in 21 (12.4%) patients; N. gonorrhoeae and herpes simplex type 2 in 11 (6.5%), and N. gonorrhoeae and U. urealyticum in nine (5.3%). Study limitations: Not relevant. Conclusion: N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, U. urealyticum, and herpes simplex type 2 were the pathogens most frequently identified in the present study. The main coinfection found was N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis. T. vaginalis and herpes simplex type 1 were not identified in any of the patients.
Abstract Background: Syphilis is one of the most common diseases that start with genital ulcers. Aside from the initial, classic ulcerative lesion of syphilis, called hard chancre, atypical presentations are common, with erosions, erythema, edema, balanitis, and other dermatological manifestations. Associated with initial genital lesions, the presence of inguinal adenopathies is frequent, and the presence of hardened and painless lymphangitis on the dorsum of the penis is rare. Objectives: To describe atypical penile manifestations in patients with early syphilis. Methods: The present study reports patients who developed cord-like lesions on the penis. Results: The study included 25 patients with cord-like lesions on the penis; in 19 of those, the diagnosis of syphilis was confirmed. Study limitations: Small number of patients included. Conclusions: In view of the findings of the present investigation, it is important to emphasize that all patients who present with cord-like lesions on the penis must undergo a rapid test for syphilis, VDRL, serologies for HIV viral hepatitis B and C and, whenever possible, histopathological and Doppler exams.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Clinical Trial for Uniform Multidrug Therapy for Leprosy Patients in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR), designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a six-months regimen, assessed the adverse effects caused by the drugs. OBJECTIVE: Describe adverse effects due to MDT in U-MDT/CT-BR, comparing the uniform regimen (U-MDT) to the current WHO regimen (R-MDT). Patients and methods: After operational classification, patients were randomly allocated to the study groups. U-MDT PB and U-MDT MB groups, received the U-MDT regimen, six doses of MB-MDT (rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine). R-MDT PB and R-MDT MB groups, received the WHO regimens: six doses (rifampicin and dapsone) for PB and 12 doses (rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine) for MB. During treatment, patients returned monthly for clinical and laboratorial evaluation. Patients with single lesion were not included in this trial. RESULTS: Skin pigmentation (21.7%) and xerosis (16.9%) were the most frequent complaints among 753 patients. Laboratory exams showed hemoglobin concentration lower than 10g/dL in 23.3% of the patients, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) above 40U/L in 29.5% and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) above 40U/L in 28.5%. Twenty-four patients (3.2%) stopped dapsone intake due to adverse effects, of whom 16.6% due to severe anemia. One case of sulfone syndrome was reported. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Loss of some monthly laboratory sample collection. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistical difference regarding adverse effects in the R-MDT and U-MDT groups but anemia was greater in patients from R-MDT/MB group, therefore adverse effects do not represent a constraint to recommend the six-month uniform regimen of treatment for all leprosy patients.
Abstract: We present a case of a penile lesion with a clinical appearance similar to Mondor penile disease (thrombosis of the dorsal vein of the penis) or penile sclerosing lymphangitis. Laboratory evaluation, however, showed a solid lesion, with no vascular component to Doppler ultrasonography and no treponema to immunohistochemistry. Histological and serological tests were compatible with secondary syphilis. The authors reinforce the need for the inclusion of syphilis in the differential diagnosis of penile cord injuries.
Abstract: In this review, the most relevant and current epidemiological data, the main clinical, laboratory and therapeutical aspects of leprosy are presented. Detailed discussion of the main drugs used for leprosy treatment, their most relevant adverse effects, evolution of the therapeutic regimen, from dapsone as a monotherapy to the proposed polychemotherapy by World Health Organization (WHO) can be found in this CME. We specifically highlight the drug acceptability, reduction in treatment duration and the most recent proposal of a single therapeutic regimen, with a fixed six months duration, for all clinical presentations, regardless of their classification.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There have been few studies on pentamidine in the Americas; and there is no consensus regarding the dose that should be applied. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of pentamidine in a single dose to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: Clinical trial of phase II pilot study with 20 patients. Pentamidine was used at a dose of 7 mg/kg, in a single dose. Safety and adverse effects were also assessed. Patients were reviewed one, two, and six months after the end of treatments. RESULTS: there was no difference between the treatment groups in relation to gender, age, number or location of the lesions. Pentamidine, applied in a single dose, obtained an effectiveness of 55%. Mild adverse events were reported by 17 (85%) patients, mainly transient pain at the site of applications (85%), while nausea (5%), malaise (5%) and dizziness (5%) were reported in one patient. No patient had sterile abscess after taking medication at a single dose of 7mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical studies with larger samples of patients would enable a better clinical response of pent amidine at a single dose of 7mg, allowing the application of more powerful statistical tests, thus providing more evidences of the decrease in the effectiveness of that medication. Hence, it is important to have larger studies with new diagrams and/or new medications.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection infection and cervical lesions and its associated factors among HIV infected women attending an AIDS clinic in Amazonas state, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Women attending an AIDS clinic in the city of Manaus between March and December 2011 for gynecological examination were invited to participate. Enrolled patients answered a standardized interview including demographical, behavioral, and clinical data. Additionally, patients underwent a gynecological evaluation with collection of cervical samples for cytological analysis and high-risk human papillomavirus infection hybrid capture. A blood sample was also obtained to determine CD4 and viral load levels. RESULTS: A total of 310 (82.9%) women participated in the study. High-risk human papillomavirus infection was detected in 191 (61.6%) cases; 24 (13.5%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and 4 (2.2%) high-grade SIL. No invasive cervical cancer was diagnosed. Median age was 32 (interquartile range (IQR): 27-38) years and median of education was 8.5 (IQR 4-11) years of schooling and 56.1% had a monthly income up to US$180. In multivariate analysis, being less than 30 years old [OR = 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2-2.4,p = 0.005)], high-grade SIL [OR = 6.5 (95% CI: 1.6-23.0, p = 0.009)], and CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3 [OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.0, p < 0.001)] were associated with high risk human papillomavirus infection infection. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study high-risk human papillomavirus infection was frequent and it was associated to high-SIL. These results show the importance of gynecologic examinations in routine care and follow-up required by those who present with cervical lesions.