Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare the periradicular responses in endodontic infections among members of two populations: an urban Brazilian population and a non-mixed indigenous population. Samples were collected immediately and 7 days after the cleaning and shaping procedures (after reducing the intracanal microbial load) in an attempt to characterize the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-9, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-17, IL-10, and the chemokines CXCR4, CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, and CCR6. The endogenous cytokine and chemokine expression levels were analyzed using real-time PCR. Only the urban population showed a significant increase in TNF-α, CCL2/MCP-1, CXCR4, and CCR6 expression following the cleaning and shaping of the root canal system. The IFN-γ levels were increased at the 2nd collection (p < 0.05) in the indigenous population. In turn, a significant increase in IL-10 and IL-17 expression (p < 0.05) was observed after the cleaning and shaping procedures (2nd collection) in both populations. No significant differences in the IL-1β, IL-9, and CCL4 expression levels were observed between the 1st and 2nd collections in both populations. The results demonstrate a cytokine and chemokine expression profile that is specific to each analyzed population. However, immune modulation mediated by IL-10 began on the 7th day after the beginning of the endodontic treatment in both populations.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of proinflammatory (RANKL, TNF-a and IFN-g) and regulatory (TGF-b and IL-10) cytokines as reaction to experimental infection by mono or bi-association of Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 10953) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19433). F. nucleatum and E. faecalis, either in mono- or bi-association were inoculated into the root canal system (RCS) of Balb/c mice. Animals were sacrificed at 10 and 20 days after infection and periapical tissues surrounding the root were collected. The mRNA expression of the cytokines RANKL, TNF-a, IFN- g, TGF-b and IL-10 was assessed using real-time PCR. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. F. nucleatum mono-infection induced high expression of RANKL and TNF-a, while its modulation was due to IL-10. High expression of IFN-g at day 20 was up-regulated by E. faecalis and RANKL; TNF-a was up-regulated by an independent mechanism via IL-10 and TGF-b. Bi-association (F. nucleatum and E. faecalis) stimulated high expression of RANKL, TNF-a and IFN-g, which seemed to be modulated by TGF-b 20 days later. The gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines was more prominent in the earlier periods of the experimental periapical infection, which concomitantly decreased in the later period. This expression may be regulated by IL-10 and TGF-b in an infection-specific condition
Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a expressão gênica de citocinas pró-inflamatórias (RANKL, TNF-a e IFN-g) e regulatórias (TGF-b e IL-10) em resposta à infecção experimental por Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 10953) e Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 19433) como mono-infecção ou em bi-associação. F. nucleatum e E. faecalis foram inoculados no sistema de canais radiculares de camundongos Balb/c, tanto isoladas como em bi-associação. Os animais foram sacrificados em 10 e 20 dias após a infecção, e os tecidos periapicais foram coletados. As expressões do mRNA das citocinas RANKL, TNF-a, IFN-g, TGF-b e IL-10 foram analisadas por meio do real-time PCR. O teste de Kruskal-Wallis foi utilizado para análise estatística. A mono-infecção com F. nucleatum induziu alta expressão de RANKL e TNF-a, enquanto sua modulação ocorreu devido à IL-10. A alta expressão de IFN-g no dia 20 foi regulada positivamente por E. faecalis e RANKL; TNF-a foi regulada positivamente por um mecanismo independente via IL-10 e TGF-b. A bi-associação (F. nucleatum e E. faecalis) estimulou uma alta expressão de RANKL, TNF-a e IFN-g, que parece ser modulada por TGF-b após 20 dias. A expressão gênica de citocinas pró-inflamatórias foi mais proeminente nos estágios iniciais da infecção periapical experimental, com concomitante redução no período tardio. Este fenômeno pode ser regulado por IL-10 e TGF-b em uma condição de infecção específica.
Abstract Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is the most prevalent genetic disease worldwide. Recurrent vaso-occlusive infarcts predispose SCA patients to infections, which are the primary causes of morbidly and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between SCA and endodontic diseases. Personal information, medical data (hematological indices, virologic testing, blood transfusions, medications received, splenectomy) and information on the need for endodontic treatment were obtained from SCA patients who were registered and followed up by the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.These data were compared with the need for root canal treatment in SCA patients. One hundred eight patients comprised the studied population, and the rate of the need for endodontic therapy was 10.2%. Among the medical data, a significant difference was observed for eosinophil (p = 0.045) counts and atypical lymphocyte counts (p = 0.036) when the groups (with and without the need for endodontic treatment) were compared. Statistical relevance was observed when comparing the patients with and without the need for root canal therapy concerned eosinophil counts and atypical lymphocyte counts. The differences in statistical medical data, observed between the groups suggest that both parameters are naturally connected to the stimulation of the immune system that can occur in the presence of root canal infections and that can be harmful to SCA individuals.